Presentation on theme: "Alkalinity of water Def: It is due to the presence of those types of substances in water which have tendency to increase the concentration of OH - ions."— Presentation transcript:
Alkalinity of water Def: It is due to the presence of those types of substances in water which have tendency to increase the concentration of OH - ions either by hydrolysis or by dissociation of water Factors 1.The presence of salts of weak organic acids which undergo hydrolysis and consume H + ions of water. As a result concentration of OH - ions increases in water and water becomes alkaline 2.The presence of HCO 3 -, HSiO 3 - and SiO 3 -2 ions in water which makes the water alkaline because they have tendency to take up H + ions from water. Hence the concentration of OH - ions increases in water and water becomes alkaline
Classification 1.Caustic Alkalinity (Due to OH - and CO 3 -2 ) 2.Temperory hardness (Due to HCO 3 - ) Alkalinity is a measure of ability of water to neutralize the acids Determination of alkalinity by titrimetric method A Known volume of hard water sample is titrated against standard acid using methyl orange and phenolphthalein as indicator Color Change at end point Methyl orange: Pale yellow to red Phenolphthalein: Pink to colourless
Determination is based on following reactions OH - + H + H 2 O CO 3 2- + H + HCO 3 - HCO 3 - + H + H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O Causes of alkalinity 1.OH - only 2.CO 3 2- only 3.HCO 3 - only 4.OH - and CO 3 -2 5.CO 3 -2 and HCO 3 - Combination of OH- and HCO3- is not possible because they combine instantaneously to form carbonate ions OH - + HCO 3 - CO 3 -2 + H 2 O
Procedure Calculation Conclusion: Result of titration i.e. P and M end point OH - CO 3 -2 HCO 3 - (i)P=000M (ii)P=MP or M00 (iii)P=1/2M02P0 (iv)P>1/2MM-2(M-P) =2P-M 2(M-P)0 (v)P<1/2M02PM-2P EXPRESSION OF ALKALINITY IN TERMS OF CaCO 3 EQUIVALENTS
Assignment Define alkalinity. Can OH - and CO3 – be present together to make the water alkaline. What are the ions responsible for causing alkalinity? Explain the process of determination of alkalinity.
Water for industrial use In most of the industries, water is used for production of steam. This water should be free from dissolved Ca and Mg salts. Such water is called BOILER FEED WATER If boiler water contains impurities beyond prescribed limit, they lead to following problems Scale and sludge formation in boiler Boiler Corrosion Priming and Foaming Caustic Embrittlement
Scale and Sludge formation in boiler Sludge : It is soft, loose and slimy precipitate formed in the boiler water, during the generation of steam It is formed by MgCO 3, MgCl 2, MgSO 4 and CaCl 2 Disadvantages: (i)Sludge is poor conductor of heat, so they tend to waste the portion of heat generated (ii)Its excess, decrease the efficiency of boiler Prevention (i)Boiler feed water should be well softened (ii)Blow-down operation should be carried out
Scale: This is hard and adherent, coating formed on inner wall of boilers, during steam generation Low pressure boilers Ca(HCO 3 ) 2, MgCl 2 High pressure boilers CaSO 4, Silica Disadvantages (i)It is poor conductor of heat so reduce the rate of heat transfer. (ii)Due to scale formation on heating surfaces, overheating occurs, so metal becomes soft and weak, and this make boiler unsafe (iii)Boiler tubes may clog due to scale formation (iv) Scale formation leads to uneven expansion of boiler metal, thick scale cracks and when water comes suddenly in contact with overheated iron plate. This result in the formation of large amount of heat suddenly, which in turn develops a sudden high pressure that may lead to explosion of boiler
Prevention of scales a.Internal treatment b. External treatment (Sequestration) lime soda process, zeolite or ion exchange process. Conditioning methods Sequestration: The process where suitable chemicals are added to the boiler containing hard water with which scales are either precipitated or converted in to soluble complexes The chemical used is called Sequestrating agent
Internal Treatments or Internal Conditioning In this method appropriate chemicals are added to water in the boiler when the hardness producing ions are converted in to either more soluble salts or insoluble ppts. The following are the important internal treatment methods done inside the boiler. 1. Colloidal Conditioning Certain organic substance like tannin is added to the boiler water they get absorbed over scale forming substances thus preventing scale deposition. 2. Phosphate conditioning In high pressure boilers, scale formation is prevented by adding sodium phosphate to boiler feed water. This reacts with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions in water forming non adherent and easily removable soft sludge of Ca and Mg phosphate. The commonly used phosphate are NaH 2 PO 4, Na 2 HPO 4 and Na 3 PO 4. 2Na 3 PO 4 + 3CaCl 2 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6 NaCl The choice of phosphate depends up on alkalinity of boiler feed water. For eg. Ca cannot be precipitated below pH 9.5. Hence Na 3 PO 4 is selected to remove Ca 2+ ions.
3. Carbonate Conditioning In low pressure boilers, scale formation can be prevented by adding Na 2 CO 3 to boiler feed water. Ca salts are precipitated as loose sludge of CaCO 3 which can be removed by blow down operation. 4. Calgon Conditioning Addition of sodium hexameta phosphate called calgon prevents scale formation by converting Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions in to soluble complexes. Na 2 [Na 4 (PO 3 ) 6 ] Na + + [Na 4 (PO 3 ) 6 ] 2- 2Ca 2+ + [Na 4 (PO 3 ) 6 ] 2- 4Na + + [Ca 2 (PO 3 ) 6 ] 2- 5. Aluminium conditioning Boiler water is treated with sodium meta aluminate when NaOH and Al(OH) 3 are formed. NaOH precipitates Mg salt as Mg(OH) 2. Both Al(OH) 3 and Mg(OH) 2 ppts formed entraps all the scale forming materials. These loose ppt formed can be removed by blow down operation. NaAlO 2 + 2H 2 O NaOH + Al(OH) 3 2NaOH + MgCl 2 Mg(OH) 2 + 2NaCl CaCl 2 + Na 2 CO 3 CaCO 3 + 2NaCl
Boiler corrosion Decay of boiler material with environment is called boiler corrosion Factors causing: a)Presence of dissolved oxygen: Liberated dissolved oxygen attack the boiler material 4Fe + 3O 2 +2xH 2 O 2Fe 2 O 3.xH 2 O b) Presence of dissolved CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 (pitting corrosion) c) Presence of acid forming salts MgCl 2 + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 + 2HCl 2HCL + Fe FeCl 2 + H 2 FeCl 2 + 2 H 2 O Fe(OH) 2 + 2 HCl Here HCl is formed again and again in a chain like process and silicic acid catalyse the reaction, if silica is present in water rate of the reaction increases
Prevention 1. By mechanical deaerator Dissolved gases like CO 2 and O 2 can be removed by this method Water undergo deaeration at high temperature and low pressure because Solubility of gases in water α P /T 2. By addition of O2 removing substances N 2 H 4 + O 2 N 2 + 2H 2 O Na 2 S + 2O 2 Na 2 SO 4 2Na 2 SO 3 + O 2 2 Na 2 SO 4 3. By addition of alkali
Priming and Foaming Priming When steam produced rapidly in boilers some droplets of water are carried along with the steam. This process of wet steam formation is called priming. Causes of Priming Presence of considerable quantities of dissolved salts. Sudden boiling High steam velocity Sudden increase in steam production rate Priming can be avoided by : Fitting mechanical steam purifiers Controlling rapid change in steam velocities Maintaining low water level Efficient solftening of boiler water.
Foaming is the production of froth or bubbles which do not break easily on the surface of boiler water. It may occur when the pH of the solution is between 7 and 9. Causes 1. Presence of dissolved impurities and suspended oil content which will reduce the surface tension of water resulting in bubble formation. 2. Presence of finely divided sludge particles Prevention 1)By removing oil or sludge by addition of coagulants.e.g FeSO 4, NaAlO 2 etc 2)By addition of antifoaming chemicals e.g. Caster oil Disadvantages of Priming and Foaming 1. Water hammer which disrupts operation of the equipment. Uneven heating of water 2. Actual height of water column in the boiler can not be judged properly, thereby maintenance of boiler pressure becomes difficult. 3. Dissolved solids in boiler water are carried by the wet steam to super heater and turbine blades where they get deposited as water evaporates. This deposit reduces the efficiency of the machine. 4. Erosion of turbine blades Foaming
Caustic Embrittlement The formation of irregular intergranular cracks on boiler metal particularly at the point of high local stress by the use of highly alkaline water in the boiler is called Caustic Embrittlement Causes: Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O 2NaOH + O 2 This caustic water flows in to the minute hair cracks usually present on boiler material through capillary action Here water evaporates and the concentration of NaOH increases progressively which attacks the surrounding area, thereby dissolving iron of the boiler as sodium ferroate 3Na 2 FeO 2 + 4 H 2 O 6NaOH + Fe 3 O 4 + H 2 Mechanistically embrittlement arises due to setting up of concentration cell Iron at points of local stress Conc NaOH dil NaOH(aq) Iron at plane surface
Prevention: 1.By phosphate conditioning of water 2. By addition of certain chemicals like lignin, tannin etc. These prevent the infilteration of NaOH through air cracks and thus help in preventing it 3. By addition of Na 2 SO 4 to boiler water Ratio of Na 2 SO 4 : NaOH(present in boiler water should be 1:1 For up to 10 atm boiler pressure 2:1 For up to 20 atm boiler pressure 3:1 For more than 20 atm boiler pressure 4. Neutralization of excess alkali by suitable technique
Assignment Write short note on the following (i) Boiler corrosion (ii) Caustic embrittlement (iii) Internal conditioning of boiler feed water.