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S TAND D YNAMICS A ND D ISTURBANCE H ISTORY I N A M IXED H ARDWOOD F OREST, S IMES T RACT, H ARVARD F OREST, MA NADEF 2009 Stand Dynamics Group Group Leaders:

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Presentation on theme: "S TAND D YNAMICS A ND D ISTURBANCE H ISTORY I N A M IXED H ARDWOOD F OREST, S IMES T RACT, H ARVARD F OREST, MA NADEF 2009 Stand Dynamics Group Group Leaders:"— Presentation transcript:

1 S TAND D YNAMICS A ND D ISTURBANCE H ISTORY I N A M IXED H ARDWOOD F OREST, S IMES T RACT, H ARVARD F OREST, MA NADEF 2009 Stand Dynamics Group Group Leaders: Saskia L. van de Gevel 1 and Chris Gentry 2 Group Members:Stella Cousins 3, Jeff Dech 4, Mike Reinikainen 5, Chris Guiterman 6, Stacy Birch 6, John Waldron 7, Eli Martinson 8, Grant Harley 9, Benjamin Hook 10, Rob Morrissey 11, Soung-Ryoul Ryu 12, April Sahara 13 1 Appalachian State University, 2 Austin Peay State University, 3 Yale F&ES, 4 Nipissing University, 5 University of Minnesota, 6 University of Maine, 7 University of West Florida, 8 Kansas State University, 9 University of Tennessee, 10 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 11 Purdue University, 12 Clemson University, 13 Humboldt State University

2 1.Create 100-year-old white ash and white pine chronologies 2.Examine vertical forest structure 3.Determine age-structure and project future forest successional trends 4.Investigate land-use history and compare to modern forest O BJECTIVES

3 Harvard Forest – Simes tract 125 ha secondary mixed hardwood forest Transitional zone - northern and central mixed hardwood forest types S TUDY A REA

4 Rock Walls Rapid Deforestation Frost Heaving Sediment Transport Changes in Surficial Geology & Geomorphology Rock wall, Simes Tract, Harvard Forest, MA B ACKGROUND : L AND U SE H ISTORY

5 Before 1740 Native American Fire & Subsistence Farming Before 1740 Native American Fire & Subsistence Farming Olive Simes Occasional Timber Harvest Olive Simes Occasional Timber Harvest 1922 – 1929 Held in Trust 1922 – 1929 Held in Trust William Simes Farm Abandoned, Recreation William Simes Farm Abandoned, Recreation Elmer Towne Active Farming Elmer Towne Active Farming John Towne Height of Forest Clearance; Farming John Towne Height of Forest Clearance; Farming 1973 – Present Harvard Forest 1973 – Present Harvard Forest B ACKGROUND : L AND U SE H ISTORY

6 Hurricanes: Gypsy moth:1981 Ice storms: ? Chestnut1910- blight:1913 B ACKGROUND : N ATURAL D ISTURBANCE

7 A circular 0.05 ha plot (12.66 m radius) Trees ( 10 cm dbh) species, crown class, dbh Saplings (<10 cm dbh, 1 m height) tallied by species M ETHODS : F IELD Mike and Soung delineate a plot boundary.

8 Tree cores At least two cores per tree Sampled near tree base Additional trees sampled adjacent to the plot; white ash (n=21) and white pine (n=24) Stems mapped M ETHODS : F IELD Grant and Jeff core a white pine (Pinus strobus)

9 Sample preparation (Stokes and Smiley, 1968) Crossdating Listed marker rings Skeleton plot Measurement Master chronology M ETHODS : L AB

10 R ESULTS : I MPORTANCE V ALUES

11 R ESULTS : S APLING COUNT

12 R ESULTS : C ANOPY C LASS

13 R ESULTS : C ROWN D ISTRIBUTION Plot radius = m White PineSugar Maple Red Maple Black Cherry Red Oak Crown Area of Individuals (>10 cm dbh) (by crown class)

14 R ESULTS : D IAMETER AT B REAST H EIGHT

15 R ESULTS : E STABLISHMENT

16 R ESULTS : S KELETON P LOTS Marker Year Shared by both Species 1944* ** 1999 * Hurricane (DAmato and Orwig 2008) ** Possible Gypsy Moth (Liebhold et al. 2000)

17 R ESULTS : COFECHA Eastern White PineWhite Ash Number of trees2421 Number of dated series3837 Master series time span Total rings in all series Series intercorrelation Mean sensitivity Series start date* Percent Flags * Chronology year with 2 or more series

18 R ESULTS : W HITE P INE C HRONOLOGY

19 R ESULTS : W HITE A SH C HRONOLOGY

20 R ESULTS : W HITE P INE C LIMATE C ORRELATIONS

21 R ESULTS : W HITE A SH C LIMATE C ORRELATIONS

22 R ESULTS : W HITE P INE EVENT A NALYSIS

23 R ESULTS : S PECIES G ROWTH R ESPONSE A NALYSIS (JOLTS)

24 Release: Major Moderate Minor

25 R ESULTS : W HITE P INE G ROWTH R ESPONSES Release Suppression Mean method: Nowacki and Abrams (1997)

26 R ESULTS : W HITE P INE G ROWTH R ESPONSES Release Suppression Median method: Rubino and McCarthy (2004)

27 R ESULTS : W HITE A SH G ROWTH R EPONSES Release Suppression Mean method: Nowacki and Abrams (1997) Mean-method

28 R ESULTS : W HITE A SH G ROWTH R ESPONSES Release Suppression Median method: Rubino and McCarthy (2004)

29 1. No trend between size and age (oldest tree=red maple) 2. Stand composition: Forest currently in stage of reinitiation 3. Changing composition: increase in shade tolerant species 4. No major recruitment 1970–2010; no recruitment of white pine in understory above 2 m 5. Stand susceptible to damage; certain species poised to take over positions within canopy D ISCUSSION / C ONCLUSIONS

30 6. Although many natural disturbances, some absent from record 7. Both species: growth positively correlated with disturbance events 1944 and White pine responded more to drought White ash experienced release during drought that suppressed white pine 9. Differences in mean vs. median method of identifying growth responses 10. White oak codominant in adjacent areas; may enter dominant class in future D ISCUSSION / C ONCLUSIONS

31 A CKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the following: Jim Speer, PhD (Indiana State University) Larry Winship, PhD (Hampshire College) Dave Orwig, PhD (Harvard Forest, Harvard University)

32 Q UESTIONS ? R AYNN Graphic by Krista Phillips


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