Presentation on theme: "Pollution in Asia China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Japan, and South Korea."— Presentation transcript:
Pollution in Asia China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Japan, and South Korea
Case Study #1 CHINA
Environmental experts fear pollution from untreated agricultural and industrial waste could turn the Yangtze into a "dead river" within five years The government has promised to clean up the Yangtze, which supplies water to almost 200 cities along its banks.
China's rapid economic development means that many of the nation's waterways are facing similar problems. In 2008, authorities announced that the Yellow River was so polluted that it was not safe for drinking. Correspondents say that 300 million people in China do not have access to safe drinking water.
Large quantities of waste are being dumped every day 30 % of river's major tributaries are heavily polluted by massive quantities of ammonia, nitrogen, phosphorous & other pollutants which are causing significantly smaller fish to catch Fishermen are afraid to eat fish when they manage to catch some because of heavy pollution.
6 big issues Deforestation Silting earlier dry seasons degraded drinking water threatened wildlife damage to sluices and power stations damage to the river's natural self-cleaning processes
In 2008, 26 billion tons of waste was dumped into the river which runs through 11 provinces Yangtze River dolphin (also known as baiji) is gone Both visual & acoustic research have failed to give positive results in 2007 as scientists concluded this already endangered animals has become extinct
Reasons for baiji extinction are mainly overfishing and commercial development that caused tremendous pollution of Yangtze river. About 20 years ago similar survey found only 13 baiji so it is really no surprise that last 2007's survey found no results
But there is insufficient planning and not enough motivation to clean up their act, whilst the law provides no consistent redress and offers too many loopholes An increase in Tourism might motivate the government
Will They Fix It? The Chinese government announced in December 2001 that it would spend 40 billion yuan ($4.8 billion) by 2010 on projects to clean up the Three Gorges and upstream stretches of the river. The State Environmental Protection Administration said the money would be spent on building 260 sewage treatment plants and 230 waste treatment facilities
Air Pollution Coal burning is the primary source of China's high emissions, it accounts for more than 75% of the country's commercial energy needs, compared with 17% in Japan & a world average of 27% coal mined in south China is high in sulfur causing acid rain
Industrial Boilers in Coal Plants boilers are highly inefficient & emit through low smoke stacks, contributing to much of ground-level air pollution Inefficient & dirty boilers are problematic because many of the industries that use them are located in densely populated metropolitan areas, placing populations in these areas at high risk of exposure.
Air Pollution The residential sector accounts for approximately 15% of total coal use, yet is estimated to contribute to more than 30 % of urban ground-level air pollution an increase number of cars have caused an increase of fossil fuel use
Harm Is done to ecosystems Crops are lost Acid rain Respiratory disease increased in humans Ozone layer damage causes cancer Increase in flooding & soil erosion
Asian Brown Cloud As seen from Google Earth Satellite
Case Study #2 INDIA
Ganges River 300 million gallons of waste go into the Ganges each day. Scientists also found that portions of the river have a fecal bacteria count nearly 4,000 times the World Health Organization's standard for bathing. Recent water samples collected in some areas revealed even worse results with a fecal bacteria count 10,000 times higher than the WHO standard for safe river bathing.
What is the source of pollution? Organic waste such as sewage, trash, food, and human as well as animal remains Current sewage system channels waste into the river. Human and animal remains deposited into the Ganges river, sometimes partially cremated, as a sacred Hindu practice. Carcasses of thousands of dead cattle that are also dumped into the river each year
Impact of overpopulation Increases in population negatively impact the water supplies Indias population is expected to be 1.6 billion people by 2050 Water is needed to irrigate crops to keep up with food supply Artificial fertilizers are used to increase food supply therefore polluting the drinking water supply
Impact of Industry Increase in population equals an increase in vehicle and industrial pollution Groundwater is polluted by industrial waste Ganges River, the primary river of India is greatly polluted by toxic waste
What are the effects? destroys river ecosystems & river species water-borne diseases (cholera, hepatitis, typhoid & amoebic dysentery) 80% of all health problems & one-third of deaths in India are result of water-borne diseases. Taj Mahal is becoming more and more yellow because of tremendous air pollution
Whats the Connection? Of the 3 million premature deaths in the world each year due to outdoor/indoor air pollution, the highest number occur in India. New Delhi is one of the top ten most polluted cities in the world. India's gross domestic product has increased 2.5 times over the past two decades car pollution has increased eight times
How has the government responded? In 1985 the Indian government launched the so called Ganges Action Plan to clean up the river. Installing sewage treatment plants, threatening fines & legal penalties against industries that pollute. The plan failed because people have been unwilling to adapt. More than $300 million have been spent, with not many results, and it is estimated that $1.5 billion more is needed.
For two years, India's Supreme Court imposed a ruling which required all public transport vehicles in New Delhi to switch to compressed natural gas (CNG) engines by April 1, Ruling led to the disappearance of some 15,000 taxis & 10,000 buses from the city, creating public protests, riots, & widespread "commuter chaos. The ruling had to be lifted. There is a lack of enforcement at local levels, but efforts are currently underway to improve this.
Impact of deforestation Increase in population increases the rural population Trees are used for fuel and land is cleared for farming The government of India encourages the use of biogas- cooking fuel produced from organic matter
Ticket Out the Door What are some causes of water and air pollution? What do you think should be done to help solve these problems?