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ITC Some Aspects of Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation

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1 ITC Some Aspects of Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation
Krzysztof Badyda INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Some Aspects of Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in Power Generation Industry (Round Table discussion) Conference on the Future of Energy in Enlarged Europe: Perspectives for R&D Co-operation A contribution within the context of the Weimar Triangle October 7- 8th, 2004, Warsaw

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3 ITC General information
The Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) is the largest academic school of technology in Poland, employing professors. The number of students is , most of them study full-time. There are 17 faculties covering almost all fields of science and technology. The Institute of Heat Engineering is part of the Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE - MEiL) of the WUT. Staff of the Institute persons, incl. 30 doctor students, and 25 technical and administration staff.

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5 Institute of Heat Engineering: structure
ITC Institute of Heat Engineering: structure Management: Prof. Janusz Lewandowski Prof. Jerzy Banaszek - didactics and research Dr Tomasz Wiśniewski - technical aspects, organisation and finance Division of Refrigeration, Machines and Equipment for Chemical and Food Industry - Prof. Jerzy Sado Division of Power Engineering - Prof. Andrzej Miller Division of Thermodynamics - Prof. Roman Domański Division of Aircraft Engines - Prof. Piotr Wolański Division of Pumps, Drivers and Power Stations - Prof. Waldemar Jędral

6 ITC Division of Power Engineering: specialities Objects
Scientific fundamentals of machine design and operation. Apparatus and their sets in power engineering. Development of methods for mathematical modelling and simulation of performance under design, off-design and transient conditions. Objects Utility and captive power plants Steam and gas turbines Combined and cogeneration sets Digital simulators of power plant equipment – turbosets, boilers New applications of distributed control systems Clean coal and environment protection technologies Hydrogen and fuel cells

7 ITC Division of Power Engineering: partners/customers
Transition Technologies (TT) – a company specialised in implementation of new computer technologies in power plant engineering Alstom Power Poland – steam and gas turbine manufacturer Vattenfall – owner of the largest combined heat and power plant in Europe (Siekierki – 620 MWel and 2000 MWth) BOT Group – owner of the largest power plant in Poland (capacity of 12370 MWel) PKN ORLEN – owner of the largest oil refining and petrochemical plant in Poland, and of the largest captive CHP plant in Poland Power plants and combined heat and power plants (utility and captive, including the distributed power sector)

8 ITC Division of Power Engineering: international partners/co-operation
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan San Diego State University, California, USA Kharkov University of Technology, Ukraine Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MEI), Russia University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia International Industrial Assessment Center DOE, Philadelphia USA (energy audits in industry)

9 ITC Division of Power Engineering:
Typical projects in the area of energy saving (realised in co-operation with industry) ITC Modernisation of turbines: adapting of flow systems to off-design operating conditions Modernisation of boilers: adapting to off-design operating conditions and/or increase of efficiency Energy audits for power and other industrial plants, proposals of production process modernisation or modification Modelling of energy and technology systems, process losses determination Optimisation of load distribution in combined heat and power plants using automatic model construction (DCS) New applications of distributed control systems in power generation industry

10 at Siekierki Combined Heat and Power Plant
ITC Energy audit at Siekierki Combined Heat and Power Plant Sankey diagram of energy flows for part of the Siekierki CHP plant in typical conditions

11 Boiler driving with neural networks in Połaniec Power Plant
ITC Boiler driving with neural networks in Połaniec Power Plant Primary steam Combustion temperature Temperatures and their differences Secondary steam PW1...6 Concentration L,R CO O2 NOx OFA WM1...6 MW1...6 Secondary air Total air Outlet gases temperature L,R

12 ITC Optimisation results Reduction of NOx emission by approx. 15-25%
Efficiency increased by approx % Elimination of CO Number of flammable parts not increased Economic operation of actuators Safe switching over (supervision system) Improved system reliability

13 ITC Optimisation of load distribution at a CHP plant
B1 gas oil B5 B3 B2 B6 B7 B4 12.8 MPa 0.12 MPa 3.4 MPa 1.8 MPa 0.75 MPa TG1 TG2 TG3 TG4 TG5 Simplified heat diagram

14 ITC Optimisation results Generated electric power
Nel [MW] t [h] t [h] Generated electric power Relative obtainable fuel savings

15 Hydrogen Turbine Project WE-NET – co-operation with Japan
ITC Hydrogen Turbine Project WE-NET – co-operation with Japan Modified New Rankine Cycle (MNRC) proposal of ITC H2 O2 H2 O2 H2 O2 h c = 84,5% R = 66,4% HHV LHV = 77,2% HPT MPT LPT

16 Pressurised fluidised bed boiler
ITC Pressurised fluidised bed boiler installation diagram

17 Power generation industry in Poland
ITC Power generation industry in Poland Installed capacity: MW. Electricity generation of distributed power generation sector: very low – installed capacity (end of 2002 – excl. industrial power): wind power 31 MW, biogas 42 MW, small water plants 492 MW. Contribution to the energy production: 0.2%. Needed intensive development of electricity sources using renewable energy. Relatively high rate of electricity production combined with heat generation. Combined heat and power plant capacity: domination of large plants. Domination of coal in the energy sector.

18 Cogeneration electricity production rate in Poland from 1985 to 2002
ITC Cogeneration electricity production rate in Poland from 1985 to 2002 Average for EC („old” 15) in 2000: about 10%.

19 ITC Rate of combined electricity production 2001
(selected „old” and „new” EC members)

20 ITC Domination of coal in the electricity production in Poland
Hard coal and lignite: 93% !!

21 Energy efficiency and energy savings: proposals of co-operation
ITC Energy efficiency and energy savings: proposals of co-operation Research on advanced power systems with use of hydrogen, esp. two-source systems Research and analysis of clean coal technologies Analysis of new concepts of zero CO2 emission power generation technologies Fuel cell hybrid systems - research and development Implementation of mathematical modelling of power installations in collaboration with distributed control systems (DCS) New concept of power plant information system

22 ITC Fuel cell hybrid systems
Recently, the interest in investigation on ultra-efficient electricity generation systems is focused on the application of fuel cells. From distributed generation point of view (200 kW to 20 MW), two types of fuel cells are considered: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. These types of fuel cells require more complex configuration of power plant cycle for proper operation. The introduction of fuel cell into power plant cycle creates a hybrid system. The research and development of these hybrid systems is a key for future use of this kind of energy sources. The focus of investigations should be laid on design, off-design and dynamic simulations of hybrid systems.

23 Implementation of mathematical modelling of power installations in collaboration with distributed control systems (DCS) ITC The new abilities for data transfer and recording within the DCS make the implementation of different application software possible. The software co-operating with DCS can also generate information for the system. That makes simulation of operation of controlled installation elements possible. Examples of projects of implementation of mathematical modelling for DCS applications, realised in our Institute: digital simulator of a back-pressure extracting steam turbine, digital simulator of a steam boiler, optimisation of load distribution in captive and utility power plants (combined heat and power), software products supporting operation of power plants .

24 ITC New concept of power plant information system
Distributed control systems (DCS) are installed in all major power and industrial plants. The automatic collection of technical data and computer processing ability open and even force new opportunities of process control and maintenance. On the other hand, a new concept of management information system (MIS) organisation in power plants and companies should be done. The new policy on the Polish energy market strongly speeds the consolidation of generators into power concerns up. Therefore, in several enterprises kind of remote management centres will be created. New MISs need to be used for them. A concept of complex utilisation data warehouse and “power portal” (internet type GUI), which seems to be the most suitable for this kind of application, was presented in multiple papers.

25 ITC THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION ! Krzysztof Badyda
INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION ! Krzysztof Badyda D.Sc., Ph.D. Professor Warsaw University of Technology Institute of Heat Engineering Nowowiejska 25 Str. pl Warszawa tel. (+48-22) , fax. (+48-22) Conference on the Future of Energy in Enlarged Europe: Perspectives for R&D Co-operation A contribution within the context of the Weimar Triangle October 7- 8th, 2004, Warsaw


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