Presentation on theme: "Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and energy certificates"— Presentation transcript:
1 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and energy certificates Dr Paul DavidsonDirector, Sustainable EnergyBRE
2 Contents The EU EPBD UK implementation Minimum standards – Part LCalculation methodsEnergy certificatesImplications for local authorities
3 EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council published 4 January 2003Over 160 million buildings in Europe account for over 40% of CO2 emissions‘Cost effective saving potential of 22% of current consumption by 2010’Aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 45 mt p.a. by 2010
4 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) Requires Member States to introduce by end 2005 plans for:Minimum Energy Performance Standardsan acceptable methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildingsminimum energy performance standards for new buildingsminimum energy performance requirements for large existing buildings subject to major renovationEnergy performance certificatesprovided to prospective purchaser/tenantprominent display of the energy certificate in all publicbuildings and “institutions providing public services”Regular inspection associated withboilersair-conditioning systems
5 Directive Implementation Advisory Group (DIAG) supporting implementation Group of 22 professional institutions and umbrella trade associations (BRE Secretariat)Objective is to work with Government to ensure practical effective and timely implementationavoiding the problems caused by some other EU DirectivesTo download a copy of the EPBDand other information, visit
6 Article 1 - ObjectiveTo promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the Community,Taking into accountoutdoor climatic and local conditionsindoor climate requirementscost-effectiveness
7 Article 3 - National Calculation Methodology Adopt a national calculation methodology (Annex)Must be transparentMay include CO2 emission indicatorMust be reviewed regularly (Article 13) by committee (Article 14).Implement through UK Building RegulationsDwellings: SAPOther buildings: Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) for most situations.Commercial software to take on more complex buildings.
8 Annex General framework for calculation of energy performance Envelope, including airtightnessHeating and hot water servicesAir-conditioningVentilationLightingOutdoor climateSolar gains and protectionIndoor climateRenewables, chp and daylightingDoesn’t specifically mention controls – but vital
9 Article 4 - Energy performance requirements Need to set legal minimum energy performance standardsBased on national methodologyDifferentiate between new and existing buildingsTake indoor climate conditions into account (eg ventilation)Review at regular intervals not exceeding 5 yearsSome buildings may be exempt (eg historic buildings)Implement through Building Regulations
10 Article 5 - New buildings Need to enforce legal minimum energy performance requirements. (i.e. prescription not guidance)For buildings over 1000m2, before construction, consider technical, environmental and economic feasibility of low and zero carbon energy supply systems:Renewable energy systemsCHPDistrict heating or coolingImplement through Building Regulations
11 Article 6 - Existing buildings For buildings over 1000m2, when undergoing renovation, upgrade energy performanceTechnically, functionally and economically feasibleRenovated systems / components or building as a wholeImplement through Building Regulations
12 Article 7 - Energy Performance Certificates 7.1 Supply Energy Performance certificates 10 years old when buildings are constructed, sold or rented out.7.2 Must include benchmarks and recommendations for improvement7.3 Buildings >1000 m2 occupied by public organisations and visited by large numbers of the public must display certificate prominently.New build - Building Regulations Part LRecent government statement on principlesCalculated Asset rating for Article 7.1Measured Operational rating for Article 7.3Intend to widen display requirement to all public and private buildings – following further consultation
13 Article 8 - Inspection of boilers Option (a) regular inspections -20kW to 100kW - inspection required for oil, coal etc. Member States to decide for other fuels.> 100 kW to be inspected every 2 years (4 years for gas).One off inspection of heating systems with boilers over 20 kW and over 15 years old.Option (b) provision of advice to users.Possible implementation through a mix of (a) and (b)See 2004 ODPM consultation report
14 Article 9 - Inspection of air conditioning systems Regular inspection of systems with rated output > 12 kWInspections must include:Assessment of efficiency and sizingAdvice on possible improvement or replacement.Possible implementation routes:Put the requirement into Building Regulations using powers under the Sustainable & Secure Buildings Act 2004.Refer to the proposed new CIBSE TM as approved guidance.Expert panel of CIBSE and FETA members has made proposals.
15 Article 10 - Certification and inspection To be “carried out in an independent manner by qualified and / or accredited experts … …”.So new qualification systems required for building energy surveyors and plant inspectors.Industry has reported with recommendations – keen to have Government approval schemes.See DIAG websiteHome Inspector qualification covers home energy ratingNew Competent Person scheme for non-dwellingsSee
16 Article 15 - Transposition All laws, regulations and administrative provisions in place by 4 January 2006Additional 3 years for Articles 7, 8 and 9 if lack of qualified and / or accredited experts
17 Other policy drivers Energy White Paper (2003) Sustainable Development Strategy (2005)
18 Energy White PaperRaise standards over the next decade learning lessons from the standards in other European countries.Raise the standard required for new and replacement boilers to SEDBUK classes A or B.ODPM to take lead in implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings DirectiveStart immediately on the next major revision of Building Regulations - aim to bring into effect in 2005.
19 Building Regulations Part L (E&W) – aims of the review To see what further contribution the Regulations can make towards achieving the Government’s carbon emissions targets whilst:-Remaining proportionateContinuing to provide satisfactory design flexibilityAvoiding unacceptable technical risks.To implement EPBD Articles 3,4,5 & 6
20 Principal changes to Part L Moves to a whole building approach based on energy/carbon targetsAims to reduce energy requirements by around 25%implies significant improvements in insulation and heating system efficiencyprovides incentive for low and zero carbon technologies, especially with fuels other than gasExtends coverage of measures installed in existing buildingsImplements EPBD articlesSimplified ADs rely on second tier documents
21 Structure of Part L ADL1A – new dwellings ADL1B – work in existing dwellingsADL2A – new buildings that are not dwellingsADL2B – work in existing buildings that are not dwellings
22 Part L – The Requirement Part L Conservation of fuel and powerL1. Reasonable provision shall be made for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings by:a) limiting heat gains and losses:i. through thermal elements and other parts of the building fabric; andii. From pipes ducts and vessels used for space heating, space cooling and hot water services;b. providing and commissioning energy efficient fixed building services with effective controls; andc. providing to the owner sufficient information about the building, the fixed building services and their maintenance requirements so that the building can be operated in such a manner as to use no more fuel and power than is reasonable in the circumstances.
23 Regulation 17 – EPBD Article 3, 4 & 5 (ADL2A) 17A. The Secretary of State shall approve a methodology of calculation of the energy performance of buildings.17B. The Secretary of State shall approve minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings, in the form of target CO2 emission rates, which shall be based upon the methodology pursuant to regulation 17A.17C. Where a building is erected, it shall not exceed the target CO2 emission rate for the building pursuant to regulation 17B.17E. In this Part ‘building’ means the building as a whole or parts of it that have been designed or altered to be used separately.
24 Regulation 17 – EPBD Article 6 (ADL2B) 17D. (1) Paragraph (2) applies to an existing building with a total useful floor area over 1000m2 where the proposed building work consists of or includes:an extensionthe initial provision of any fixed building services; oran increase to the installed capacity of any fixed building services(2) Subject to paragraph (3), where this regulation applies, such work, if any, shall be carried out as is necessary to ensure that the building complies with the requirements of Part L of Schedule 1.(3) Nothing in paragraph (2) requires work to be carried out if it is not technically, functionally and economically feasible.
25 The compliance route for new buildings - ADL2A Meet the carbon targetBased on a whole building energy calculationMeet the worst acceptable standardsEnvelope insulationAir permeabilityEfficiency of building servicesControl of summer overheatingQuality of construction & commissioningProvision of information
26 Carbon emissions Calculate carbon emissions from ‘notional’ building 2002 elemental standardsCalculate carbon emissions target (TER)Improvement factor + renewables benchmarkCalculate predicted carbon emissions from actual building (BER)Same occupancy as notional buildingPreliminary calculation of BER at design stageFinal calculation of BER as builtBER must be lower than TER
27 Building certification – EPBD Article 7 Asset ratingOperational ratingImplementation now decided in principleThree year extension to train expertsDevelop certification schemesHome inspectors to prepare information for home information packs
28 Why energy label a building? To demonstrate and quantify energy performanceTo show compliance with Building Regulations and EPBDTo differentiate between buildings on basis of energy useTo simplify specification for a new buildingTo simplify requirements for leasing a buildingTo drive up energy standards through market pressureto remove poorest performersto encourage competition for better performance
29 Energy labels for buildings Almost all relate only to componentsSome have a performance thresholdpass criteria raised from time to time, but once given, label remainsOthers place absolute performance on a relative scale
30 Energy rating definitions New Building Design Ratinga calculation of building energy performance carried out as part of building control submissionused to show compliance with Part L energy performance requirementsNew Building Asset Ratinga calculation of intrinsic energy performance “as-built”rating base line to be the equivalent ‘notional building’Existing Building Asset Ratingprovided to prospective purchaser or tenantbased on the intrinsic energy performance of the buildingOperational Ratingused for public display/disclosure purposesbased on actual building performance/energy managementderived from metered energy data and floor area
31 What methods will be used to derive energy performance ratings in the UK? New Dwellingsdwelling carbon emissions rate calculated using SAP 2005Existing Dwellingsassessment using reduced data-set SAP (RD-SAP)EPBD compliant Energy Report included in Home Condition ReportNew Non-DwellingsCEN based National Calculation Method for simple buildings (SBEM)simulation tools for complex buildingsExisting Non-Dwellingsassessment using SBEM plus inference engineOperational rating for public display
32 Energy ratings for dwellings SAP is the Government's Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings.SAP 2005 is part of the UK national methodology for calculation of the energy performance of buildings.It is usedto demonstrate compliance for dwellings with Part L of the Building Regulations (England and Wales) andto provide energy ratings for dwellings.SAP is developed and maintained by BRE
33 SAP Calculation can be carried out via ‘manual’ worksheet + tables Or by approved softwareRating is based on net annual energy costs forSpace and water heatingVentilationLightingScale is from 1 to 100 (100 = zero energy cost)Also calculates Dwelling CO2 Emission Rate (DER) (kg/m2/yr)And Environmental Impact Rating (CO2) – 1 to 100Independent ofHousehold sizeOwnership of electrical appliancesIndividual heating patterns and temperatures
34 Reduced Data SAP for existing dwellings Based on site surveyLimited collection of dataDefault U-values based on age and type of constructionProvides recommendations for improvements
35 Part of Home Condition Report UK domestic certificate, now out for final consultation. To be included with Home Information Pack
36 Information for householders Explains actual and potential energy/emissions/costs
40 Buildings other than dwellings Operational Ratings Based on measured in-use consumption dataIncludes intrinsic performance, plus effect of:Actual plant performanceActual occupancy, location, etcActual management practices by occupants at the timeA comparative rating with respect to benchmarksUsed to establish scope for improvementMust recommend improvement measuresNo theoretical calculation required
41 Buildings other than dwellings Calculation methods Either use simulation software (such as IES and TAS)Or a new, simplified calculation tool – SBEMSBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model) was developed by BRE for ODPM in 2005Now the default calculation method for energy performance evaluation
42 SBEM – meeting two inter-related requirements Building Regulations Part L2aNew revision came into force April 2006New buildings – design approval and completionEnergy Performance of Buildings DirectiveMinimum energy performance for new buildings (Part L2A)Energy certificate required when sold or leasedEnergy certificate required for public display?
43 SBEM produces an Asset Rating The calculated intrinsic performance of the building as builtNormalised to standard conditions (weather, occupancy)Recognises different ‘activity areas’Applicable to both new and existing buildingsAutomatically compares with a ‘Notional Building’ as the baselineUsed to demonstrate compliance with minimum standardAnd perhaps to generate a comparative rating (‘A-G’ or 0-100)Used to compare one building with othersAlso need a ‘Design rating’ before building is builtGovernment has not yet finalised Asset Rating definition
44 Activity areas – distinct areas with distinct impacts on energy use Will include, for example:Cellular officeOpen-plan officeSales area - ambientLecture theatreSports hallClassroomStorage - chilledToiletsStairs
45 Activity schedules – to include Occupancy densityOccupancy scheduleDesign temperature set-pointsDesign ventilation rateTarget illuminanceEquipment gainsDHW requirementHumidification if essentialStandard values for Asset Rating(Tailored values for Tailored rating could be possible)
46 The rating and compliance test - NCM ActualCO2/m2/yrFabric & plantBuildinggeometryCalculationToolInputdataStandardActivityScheduleThe concept is based upon a national calculation tool which is used to calculate the carbon emissions from a notional building that is the same size and shape of the actual proposed building.The energy performance standards of the notional building must comply with elemental standards which are generally in line with those given in 2002 edition of Approved Document L2.These details along with activity information are put into the tool and a carbon emissions target for the actual building is arrived at.The same calculation methodology is then used, to arrive at a proposed carbon emission rate for the actual building, using the fabric and plant data for the actual building and the same occupancy as the notional building.The proposed rate must be no greater than the target or the design will require revision.As part of the final demonstration of compliance, a second calculation will need to be carried out upon the building as built and installed. This calculation defines the building Asset Rating. (required and defined by Article 7)
47 The rating and compliance test - NCM ActualCO2/m2/yrFabric & plantBuildinggeometryCalculationToolInputdataNotionalbaseline2002 ElementalstandardsFabric & plantStandardActivityScheduleThe concept is based upon a national calculation tool which is used to calculate the carbon emissions from a notional building that is the same size and shape of the actual proposed building.The energy performance standards of the notional building must comply with elemental standards which are generally in line with those given in 2002 edition of Approved Document L2.These details along with activity information are put into the tool and a carbon emissions target for the actual building is arrived at.The same calculation methodology is then used, to arrive at a proposed carbon emission rate for the actual building, using the fabric and plant data for the actual building and the same occupancy as the notional building.The proposed rate must be no greater than the target or the design will require revision.As part of the final demonstration of compliance, a second calculation will need to be carried out upon the building as built and installed. This calculation defines the building Asset Rating. (required and defined by Article 7)
48 National Calculation Method – overview of iSBEM approach InterfaceiSBEMCalculation coreSBEMUserInterfaceActivityDatabaseFabricdatabaseServicedatabase
49 Describing the building - key stages GeometryOverall building layoutDistribution of activity areasConstructionSystemsControlsTwo different input routes:New build – from plansExisting buildings – from brief survey and, eg, log book data, supplemented by inference
52 Summary of current tools Energy rating tool for housing – SAPEnergy rating tool for other buildings – SBEMSo far, used to demonstrate compliance with mandatory Building Regulation standardsSAP is also used as an energy labelSBEM probably will be soonBREEAM and EcoHomes provide ratings covering energy along with other environmental issuesSBEM is available atSAP atBREEAM at
53 Benefits of energy labelling Significant new drivers for building clients, owners and developers:Brand image / Corporate Social ResponsibilityEnvironmental reporting associated with property portfoliosImpact on asset value (positive and negative)An aid to procurementIntroduces new requirement into the property transaction processFully glazed facades might be limited to prestige buildingsEnergy labelling should make architectural ‘greenwash’ more difficultBill Bordass/Europrosper
54 Implications for local authorities Immediate:(Building Control responsibilities)Generate energy labels for new buildings and large extensions when designed and builtSoonOperational ratings for large buildings with public accessAsset ratings for any buildings to be sold or letBenchmarking of stockUse of rating in procuring new buildings