Presentation on theme: "Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and energy certificates Dr Paul Davidson Director, Sustainable Energy BRE."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and energy certificates Dr Paul Davidson Director, Sustainable Energy BRE
Contents The EU EPBD UK implementation –Minimum standards – Part L –Calculation methods –Energy certificates Implications for local authorities
EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council published 4 January 2003 Over 160 million buildings in Europe account for over 40% of CO 2 emissions Cost effective saving potential of 22% of current consumption by 2010 Aims to reduce CO 2 emissions by 45 mt p.a. by 2010
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) Requires Member States to introduce by end 2005 plans for: Minimum Energy Performance Standards an acceptable methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings minimum energy performance standards for new buildings minimum energy performance requirements for large existing buildings subject to major renovation Energy performance certificates provided to prospective purchaser/tenant prominent display of the energy certificate in all public buildings and institutions providing public services Regular inspection associated with boilers air-conditioning systems
Directive Implementation Advisory Group (DIAG) supporting implementation Group of 22 professional institutions and umbrella trade associations (BRE Secretariat) Objective is to work with Government to ensure practical effective and timely implementation avoiding the problems caused by some other EU Directives To download a copy of the EPBD and other information, visit
Article 1 - Objective To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the Community, Taking into account –outdoor climatic and local conditions –indoor climate requirements –cost-effectiveness
Article 3 - National Calculation Methodology Adopt a national calculation methodology (Annex) Must be transparent May include CO 2 emission indicator Must be reviewed regularly (Article 13) by committee (Article 14). Implement through UK Building Regulations –Dwellings: SAP –Other buildings: Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) for most situations. –Commercial software to take on more complex buildings.
Annex General framework for calculation of energy performance Envelope, including airtightness Heating and hot water services Air-conditioning Ventilation Lighting Outdoor climate Solar gains and protection Indoor climate Renewables, chp and daylighting Doesnt specifically mention controls – but vital
Article 4 - Energy performance requirements Need to set legal minimum energy performance standards Based on national methodology Differentiate between new and existing buildings Take indoor climate conditions into account (eg ventilation) Review at regular intervals not exceeding 5 years Some buildings may be exempt (eg historic buildings) Implement through Building Regulations
Article 5 - New buildings Need to enforce legal minimum energy performance requirements. (i.e. prescription not guidance) For buildings over 1000m 2, before construction, consider technical, environmental and economic feasibility of low and zero carbon energy supply systems: –Renewable energy systems –CHP –District heating or cooling Implement through Building Regulations
Article 6 - Existing buildings For buildings over 1000m 2, when undergoing renovation, upgrade energy performance Technically, functionally and economically feasible Renovated systems / components or building as a whole Implement through Building Regulations
Article 7 - Energy Performance Certificates 7.1 Supply Energy Performance certificates 10 years old when buildings are constructed, sold or rented out. 7.2 Must include benchmarks and recommendations for improvement 7.3 Buildings >1000 m 2 occupied by public organisations and visited by large numbers of the public must display certificate prominently. New build - Building Regulations Part L Recent government statement on principles –Calculated Asset rating for Article 7.1 –Measured Operational rating for Article 7.3 –Intend to widen display requirement to all public and private buildings – following further consultation
Article 8 - Inspection of boilers Option (a) regular inspections - –20kW to 100kW - inspection required for oil, coal etc. Member States to decide for other fuels. –> 100 kW to be inspected every 2 years (4 years for gas). –One off inspection of heating systems with boilers over 20 kW and over 15 years old. Option (b) provision of advice to users. Possible implementation through a mix of (a) and (b) See 2004 ODPM consultation report
Article 9 - Inspection of air conditioning systems Regular inspection of systems with rated output > 12 kW Inspections must include: –Assessment of efficiency and sizing –Advice on possible improvement or replacement. Possible implementation routes: –Put the requirement into Building Regulations using powers under the Sustainable & Secure Buildings Act –Refer to the proposed new CIBSE TM as approved guidance. Expert panel of CIBSE and FETA members has made proposals.
Article 10 - Certification and inspection To be carried out in an independent manner by qualified and / or accredited experts … …. So new qualification systems required for building energy surveyors and plant inspectors. Industry has reported with recommendations – keen to have Government approval schemes. See DIAG website Home Inspector qualification covers home energy rating New Competent Person scheme for non-dwellings –See
Article 15 - Transposition All laws, regulations and administrative provisions in place by 4 January 2006 Additional 3 years for Articles 7, 8 and 9 if lack of qualified and / or accredited experts
Other policy drivers Energy White Paper (2003) Sustainable Development Strategy (2005)
Energy White Paper Raise standards over the next decade learning lessons from the standards in other European countries Raise the standard required for new and replacement boilers to SEDBUK classes A or B ODPM to take lead in implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Start immediately on the next major revision of Building Regulations - aim to bring into effect in 2005.
Building Regulations Part L (E&W) – aims of the review To see what further contribution the Regulations can make towards achieving the Governments carbon emissions targets whilst:- –Remaining proportionate –Continuing to provide satisfactory design flexibility –Avoiding unacceptable technical risks. To implement EPBD Articles 3,4,5 & 6
Principal changes to Part L Moves to a whole building approach based on energy/carbon targets Aims to reduce energy requirements by around 25% –implies significant improvements in insulation and heating system efficiency –provides incentive for low and zero carbon technologies, especially with fuels other than gas Extends coverage of measures installed in existing buildings Implements EPBD articles Simplified ADs rely on second tier documents
Structure of Part L ADL1A – new dwellings ADL1B – work in existing dwellings ADL2A – new buildings that are not dwellings ADL2B – work in existing buildings that are not dwellings
Part L – The Requirement Part L Conservation of fuel and power L1. Reasonable provision shall be made for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings by: a) limiting heat gains and losses: i. through thermal elements and other parts of the building fabric; and ii. From pipes ducts and vessels used for space heating, space cooling and hot water services; b. providing and commissioning energy efficient fixed building services with effective controls; and c. providing to the owner sufficient information about the building, the fixed building services and their maintenance requirements so that the building can be operated in such a manner as to use no more fuel and power than is reasonable in the circumstances.
Regulation 17 – EPBD Article 3, 4 & 5 (ADL2A) 17A. The Secretary of State shall approve a methodology of calculation of the energy performance of buildings. 17B. The Secretary of State shall approve minimum energy performance requirements for new buildings, in the form of target CO 2 emission rates, which shall be based upon the methodology pursuant to regulation 17A. 17C. Where a building is erected, it shall not exceed the target CO 2 emission rate for the building pursuant to regulation 17B. 17E. In this Part building means the building as a whole or parts of it that have been designed or altered to be used separately.
Regulation 17 – EPBD Article 6 (ADL2B) 17D. (1) Paragraph (2) applies to an existing building with a total useful floor area over 1000m 2 where the proposed building work consists of or includes: a.an extension b.the initial provision of any fixed building services; or c.an increase to the installed capacity of any fixed building services (2) Subject to paragraph (3), where this regulation applies, such work, if any, shall be carried out as is necessary to ensure that the building complies with the requirements of Part L of Schedule 1. (3) Nothing in paragraph (2) requires work to be carried out if it is not technically, functionally and economically feasible.
The compliance route for new buildings - ADL2A Meet the carbon target –Based on a whole building energy calculation Meet the worst acceptable standards –Envelope insulation –Air permeability –Efficiency of building services Control of summer overheating Quality of construction & commissioning Provision of information
Carbon emissions 1.Calculate carbon emissions from notional building –2002 elemental standards 2.Calculate carbon emissions target (TER) –Improvement factor + renewables benchmark 3.Calculate predicted carbon emissions from actual building (BER) –Same occupancy as notional building Preliminary calculation of BER at design stage Final calculation of BER as built BER must be lower than TER
Building certification – EPBD Article 7 Asset rating Operational rating Implementation now decided in principle Three year extension to train experts Develop certification schemes Home inspectors to prepare information for home information packs
Why energy label a building? To demonstrate and quantify energy performance To show compliance with Building Regulations and EPBD To differentiate between buildings on basis of energy use To simplify specification for a new building To simplify requirements for leasing a building To drive up energy standards through market pressure –to remove poorest performers –to encourage competition for better performance
Energy labels for buildings Almost all relate only to components Some have a performance threshold –pass criteria raised from time to time, but once given, label remains Others place absolute performance on a relative scale
Energy rating definitions New Building Design Rating –a calculation of building energy performance carried out as part of building control submission –used to show compliance with Part L energy performance requirements New Building Asset Rating –a calculation of intrinsic energy performance as-built –rating base line to be the equivalent notional building Existing Building Asset Rating –provided to prospective purchaser or tenant –based on the intrinsic energy performance of the building Operational Rating –used for public display/disclosure purposes –based on actual building performance/energy management –derived from metered energy data and floor area
What methods will be used to derive energy performance ratings in the UK? New Dwellings dwelling carbon emissions rate calculated using SAP 2005 Existing Dwellings assessment using reduced data-set SAP (RD-SAP) EPBD compliant Energy Report included in Home Condition Report New Non-Dwellings CEN based National Calculation Method for simple buildings (SBEM) simulation tools for complex buildings Existing Non-Dwellings assessment using SBEM plus inference engine Operational rating for public display
Energy ratings for dwellings SAP is the Government's Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings. SAP 2005 is part of the UK national methodology for calculation of the energy performance of buildings. It is used –to demonstrate compliance for dwellings with Part L of the Building Regulations (England and Wales) and –to provide energy ratings for dwellings. SAP is developed and maintained by BRE
SAP Calculation can be carried out via manual worksheet + tables Or by approved software Rating is based on net annual energy costs for –Space and water heating –Ventilation –Lighting Scale is from 1 to 100 (100 = zero energy cost) Also calculates Dwelling CO 2 Emission Rate (DER) (kg/m 2 /yr) And Environmental Impact Rating (CO 2 ) – 1 to 100 Independent of –Household size –Ownership of electrical appliances –Individual heating patterns and temperatures
Reduced Data SAP for existing dwellings Based on site survey Limited collection of data Default U-values based on age and type of construction Provides recommendations for improvements
Part of Home Condition Report
Information for householders
Buildings other than dwellings Operational Ratings Based on measured in-use consumption data Includes intrinsic performance, plus effect of: Actual plant performance Actual occupancy, location, etc Actual management practices by occupants at the time A comparative rating with respect to benchmarks Used to establish scope for improvement Must recommend improvement measures No theoretical calculation required
Buildings other than dwellings Calculation methods Either use simulation software (such as IES and TAS) Or a new, simplified calculation tool – SBEM SBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model) was developed by BRE for ODPM in 2005 Now the default calculation method for energy performance evaluation
SBEM – meeting two inter-related requirements Building Regulations Part L2a –New revision came into force April 2006 –New buildings – design approval and completion Energy Performance of Buildings Directive –Minimum energy performance for new buildings (Part L2A) –Energy certificate required when sold or leased –Energy certificate required for public display?
SBEM produces an Asset Rating The calculated intrinsic performance of the building as built Normalised to standard conditions (weather, occupancy) Recognises different activity areas Applicable to both new and existing buildings Automatically compares with a Notional Building as the baseline Used to demonstrate compliance with minimum standard And perhaps to generate a comparative rating (A-G or 0-100) Used to compare one building with others Also need a Design rating before building is built Government has not yet finalised Asset Rating definition
Activity areas – distinct areas with distinct impacts on energy use Will include, for example: Cellular office Open-plan office Sales area - ambient Lecture theatre Sports hall Classroom Storage - chilled Toilets Stairs
Activity schedules – to include Occupancy density Occupancy schedule Design temperature set-points Design ventilation rate Target illuminance Equipment gains DHW requirement Humidification if essential Standard values for Asset Rating (Tailored values for Tailored rating could be possible)
The rating and compliance test - NCM Calculation Tool Input data Standard Activity Schedule Actual CO 2 /m 2 /yr Actual Fabric & plant Building geometry
The rating and compliance test - NCM Notional baseline 2002 Elemental standards Fabric & plant Calculation Tool Input data Standard Activity Schedule Actual CO 2 /m 2 /yr Actual Fabric & plant Building geometry
National Calculation Method – overview of iSBEM approach User Interface iSBEM Calculation core SBEM Interface Activity Database Fabric database Service database
Describing the building - key stages Geometry –Overall building layout –Distribution of activity areas Construction Systems Controls Two different input routes: –New build – from plans –Existing buildings – from brief survey and, eg, log book data, supplemented by inference
iSBEM – General information
Calculating the Asset Rating
Summary of current tools Energy rating tool for housing – SAP Energy rating tool for other buildings – SBEM So far, used to demonstrate compliance with mandatory Building Regulation standards SAP is also used as an energy label SBEM probably will be soon BREEAM and EcoHomes provide ratings covering energy along with other environmental issues SBEM is available at SAP at BREEAM at
Benefits of energy labelling Significant new drivers for building clients, owners and developers: Brand image / Corporate Social Responsibility Environmental reporting associated with property portfolios Impact on asset value (positive and negative) An aid to procurement Introduces new requirement into the property transaction process Fully glazed facades might be limited to prestige buildings Energy labelling should make architectural greenwash more difficult Bill Bordass/Europrosper
Implications for local authorities Immediate: (Building Control responsibilities) Generate energy labels for new buildings and large extensions when designed and built Soon Operational ratings for large buildings with public access Asset ratings for any buildings to be sold or let Benchmarking of stock Use of rating in procuring new buildings