The Strategies and Goals Strategy 2 Increase Kentuckys use of renewable energy Goal: By 2025, Kentuckys renewable energy generation will triple to provide the equivalent of 1,000 megawatts of clean energy while continuing to produce safe, abundant and affordable food, feed and fiber. Strategy 2 Strategy 3 Sustainably grow Kentuckys production of biofuels Goal: By 2025, Kentucky will derive from biofuels 12 percent of its motor fuels demand, while continuing to produce safe, abundant and affordable food, feed and fiber. Strategy 3
Ground Rules All biomass will be reported on a dry weight basis – corn at 47.3 lb/bu (not 56 lb/bu) dry matter. Some ag residue must be left on field to protect soil. Dry weight of plant is about equal to weight of grain. Biomass energy content - 7,500 Btu/lb; Coal - 12,000 Btu/lb.
Biopower vs. Biofuel Electricity generated using biomass is by direct combustion using conventional boilers: – Boilers burn waste wood products – Coal-fired power plants also add biomass to their coal- burning process (i.e., co-firing) to reduce the emissions Biomass can also be gasified prior to combustion: – Gases generally burn cleaner and more efficiently – Biomass can be used combined-cycle gas turbines (used in the latest natural gas power plants) – Modular biomass gasification systems provide electricity for isolated communities
Biopower vs. Biofuel Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel produced from lignocellulose (structural material comprising much of the plant) – Ethanol from lignocellulose has the advantage of abundant and diverse raw material – Greater processing to make the sugar available to microorganisms for fermentation Pyrolysis is the basis of several methods that are being developed for producing fuel from biomass – Bio-oil, resembling light crude oil,can be produced by hydrous pyrolysis from many kinds of feedstock
Perspective Kentucky consumes 44 MTY of coal. Kentucky has a land area of 25.4 M acres. If we were to replace coal (12,000 Btu/lb) with biomass (7,500 Btu/lb), we would need to harvest 2.8 T/ac of biomass every year from every acre in Kentucky.
Cropland WoodlandRangelandCRPTotal HarvestedPasturedOther West2,899,629734,671493,8701,101,705471,144348,2646,049,284 Central1,848,9731,600,940281,4171,357,147967,81749,9876,106,281 East230,380241,33976,741652,758174,7185,4711,381,410 Total4,978,9832,576,950852,0313,111,6101,613,678403,72413,536,975 Table 1. Available land resources (ac) on Kentucky farms 1. 1 http://www.nass.usda.gov/Census/Create_Census_US.jsp
FederalStateLocalPrivate 2 Sum West186,11271,99913,1161,426,1661,697,392 Central127,51128,04116,7642,093,4242,265,742 East550,16189,18726,9794,069,1454,735,474 Sum863,783189,22856,8617,588,7378,698,609 Table 2. Potential forest resources (ac) in Kentucky 1. 1 http://fiatools.fs.fed.us/fido/index.html- US Forest Service. 2 Forest land not included in woodland category for farms.
YearAcresYield (bu/ac)Yield (T/ac)MT Corn20091,130,000146-3.90 Beans20091,430,00044-1.63 Small Grain2008460,00071-0.85 Hay20092,640,000-1.955.16 Total11.54 Scenario 1: Existing ag production harvested for energy biomass.
YearAcresYield (bu/ac)Yield (T/ac)MT Corn20091,130,0001461.731.95 Beans20091,430,00044-- Small Grain2008460,000710.920.42 Hay20092,640,000--- Total2.37 Scenario 2: One-half of ag residues harvested for energy biomass.
YearAcresYield (T/ac)MT Wood Waste200511,810,0000.182.09 Scenario 3: One-half of wood waste processed for energy biomass.
YearAcresYield (T/ac)MT Switchgrass2005683,0006.04.10 Scenario 4: 10% of hay, pasture and range land sown to switchgrass.
YearAcresYield (T/ac)MT Miscanthus2005683,00010.06.83 Scenario 5: 10% of hay, pasture and range land planted to miscanthus.
YearAcresYield (T/ac/yr)MT Dedicated Woody Biomass Crops2005590,0004.462.63 Scenario 6: 5% of forests and woodlands (farm) planted to dedicated woody biomass crops.
YearAcresYield (T/ac/yr)MT Dedicated Woody Biomass Crops2005315,0002.230.702 Scenario 6: 50% of reclaimed mine lands planted to dedicated woody biomass crops.
Summary Scenario 1 (convert food to fuel) not plausible. Scenarios 2, 3, 4 or 5, 6 and 7 are possible and will result in 11.9 MTY to 14.6 MTY of production per year. Can we reach 25 MTY? Will depend on the value of biomass and competing land use. KY does have the natural resources base.