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ESC 305.01 Global Climate Change Chapter 8 Energy in the Future & Renewable Energy Part 2.

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Presentation on theme: "ESC 305.01 Global Climate Change Chapter 8 Energy in the Future & Renewable Energy Part 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESC Global Climate Change Chapter 8 Energy in the Future & Renewable Energy Part 2

2 Non-Renewable Sources Fossil-fuel sources: Coal Gas Oil During earlier periods of the Earths history, fossilization of biological material created the deposits of coal, oil and gas, of which at least Joule is presently believed to be recoverable in a form suitable for fuel uses (Sorensen, 2011). Nuclear energy may be released in large quantities from nuclear reactions, such as fission of heavy nuclei or fusion of light nuclei (Sorensen, 2011).

3 Non-Renewable Sources Source: US Energy Information Administration

4 Non-Renewable Sources

5 Estimates of reserves, fossil or nuclear, are extremely uncertain and are sure to be greatly underestimated because of incomplete prospecting.Estimates of reserves, fossil or nuclear, are extremely uncertain and are sure to be greatly underestimated because of incomplete prospecting. Known reserves of coal, oil and gas Coal39,000 EJ (2002) Oil18,900 EJ (2002) Gas15,700 EJ (2002) Liquefied gas2,300 EJ (2002) Source: da Rosa, EJ= Joule

6 An even more uncertain estimate of reserves of fissile materials are given in the Table below. This estimate of nuclear fuels do not include the reserves of the former Soviet Union and China.An even more uncertain estimate of reserves of fissile materials are given in the Table below. This estimate of nuclear fuels do not include the reserves of the former Soviet Union and China. Known reserves of fissionable materials 235 U2,600 EJ 238 U320,000 EJ 232 Th11,000 EJ Source: da Rosa, 2009.

7 Source: US Energy Information Administration.

8 Coal

9 NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES COAL In general, the older the coal the higher the carbon content and the more valuable the resource is. In general, the older the coal the higher the carbon content and the more valuable the resource is. The quality and usefulness of any coal depends not only on the organic remains from which it solidified, but also on the inorganic fraction (sulphur, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and radioactive material). The quality and usefulness of any coal depends not only on the organic remains from which it solidified, but also on the inorganic fraction (sulphur, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and radioactive material). Coal is most usefully ranked according to its percentage carbon content (the higher the better); Coal is most usefully ranked according to its percentage carbon content (the higher the better); Anthracite, Bituminous, Lignite....

10 NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES COAL The combustion of coal; Almost all coal used today in the developed world is burnt within boilers, with the purpose of heating water. The combustion of coal; Almost all coal used today in the developed world is burnt within boilers, with the purpose of heating water. Coal boilers vary in size and design-from a few kilowatts in the home to over 600 MW in a power station, but all include; Coal boilers vary in size and design-from a few kilowatts in the home to over 600 MW in a power station, but all include; - a combustion chamber - a feed system to place the coal into the chamber - a system to supply air - a chimney - a collection mechanism for the ash

11 Source:

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13 World coal resources; There is enough coal to last around 119 years at current rates of production (www.worldcoal.org). World coal resources; There is enough coal to last around 119 years at current rates of production (www.worldcoal.org).

14 BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2010 BP Statistical Review of World Energy © BP 2010

15 Proved coal reserves at end 2009

16 Coal production – Coal consumption

17 Oil

18 NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OIL The oil recovered from a well is called crude oil and has very little use until it is separated into its constituent fractions and impurities removed by refining. The oil recovered from a well is called crude oil and has very little use until it is separated into its constituent fractions and impurities removed by refining. A barrel of oil is 159 litres. A barrel of oil is 159 litres. One barrel weighs tonnes and contains GJ of energy. One barrel weighs tonnes and contains GJ of energy. Crude oil extraction is a difficult and costly business. Crude oil extraction is a difficult and costly business. Unlike coal, oil is used to power a wide variety of combustion systems: from simple domestic boilers to aircraft turbines. Unlike coal, oil is used to power a wide variety of combustion systems: from simple domestic boilers to aircraft turbines.

19 Proved oil reserves

20 Distribution of proved oil reserves

21 Oil production by region

22 Oil consumption by region

23 Oil consumption per capita

24 Oil product consumption by region

25 Chart of crude oil prices since 1861

26 Chart of OECD total commercial oil stocks

27 Chart of refinery utilisation

28 Major oil trade movements

29 OPEC; Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Members as of 2001; Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Venezuela, United Arab Emirates). OPEC; Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Members as of 2001; Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Venezuela, United Arab Emirates). OECD; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Some Members as of 2001; Austria, Germany, France, USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Turkey, South Korea, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico, Spain.....) OECD; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Some Members as of 2001; Austria, Germany, France, USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Turkey, South Korea, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico, Spain.....)

30 Natural Gas

31 NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES NATURAL GAS Natural gas is a highly valued fuel. The advantages are; Natural gas is a highly valued fuel. The advantages are; - Burns cleanly - Easy transport by pipeline - Use as a replacement for oil in many systems for electricity generation and domestic heating - Natural gas is often found above oil deposits, from which it derives, but it is also found remote from any oil, in which case its origin is usually lower-lying coal deposits.

32 NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES NATURAL GAS When natural gas is extracted, it is usually around 80 to 90 % methane (CH4) with small amounts of ethane, butane, propane, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. When natural gas is extracted, it is usually around 80 to 90 % methane (CH4) with small amounts of ethane, butane, propane, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. Before retail distribution, this natural composition is standardized to 95 % methane with small amounts of ethane, butane, propane. Before retail distribution, this natural composition is standardized to 95 % methane with small amounts of ethane, butane, propane. The resultant product is distributed to customers via pipelines, or in liquid form (liquid natural gas, LNG) via road tankers. The resultant product is distributed to customers via pipelines, or in liquid form (liquid natural gas, LNG) via road tankers.

33 Proved natural gas reserves at end 2009

34 Distribution of proved natural gas reserves

35 Natural gas production by region

36 Natural gas consumption by region

37 Natural gas consumption per capita

38 Major gas trade movements

39 Nuclear Energy

40 NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants use this energy to produce electricity. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants use this energy to produce electricity. The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium. The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium.

41 NUCLEAR ENERGY Source: US Energy Information Administration.

42 NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear fission reactors are currently used to produce energy from nuclear sources.Nuclear fission reactors are currently used to produce energy from nuclear sources. Especially after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, nuclear energy has developed a bad reputation.Especially after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, nuclear energy has developed a bad reputation. Nuclear energy is an important source of energy in many countries.Nuclear energy is an important source of energy in many countries. In 2007, the US led the world in installed capacity of 104 GW, followed by France (63 GW) and Japan (47.6 GW).In 2007, the US led the world in installed capacity of 104 GW, followed by France (63 GW) and Japan (47.6 GW). Nuclear plants in the US contributed to 19.9 % of the total electricity production in 2008.Nuclear plants in the US contributed to 19.9 % of the total electricity production in 2008.

43 NUCLEAR ENERGY In France, contribution was 76.1 %, while in Japan it was 34.6 %.In France, contribution was 76.1 %, while in Japan it was 34.6 %. In 2000, Germany decided to phase out its 19 nuclear power plants.In 2000, Germany decided to phase out its 19 nuclear power plants. The cost of nuclear electricity is high, about double that from fossil fuel. It was 7 cents/kWh in the US in 1996, however, advanced reactor designs may bring these costs down considerably while ensuring greater safety.The cost of nuclear electricity is high, about double that from fossil fuel. It was 7 cents/kWh in the US in 1996, however, advanced reactor designs may bring these costs down considerably while ensuring greater safety. This promised reduced cost combined with the ecological advantage of no greenhouse gas emission may lead to a renewed popularity.This promised reduced cost combined with the ecological advantage of no greenhouse gas emission may lead to a renewed popularity.

44 NUCLEAR ENERGY

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48 The major objection to fission-type reactors is not related to the danger of operation, but rather to the problem of disposing of large amounts of long-lived radioactive by-products.The major objection to fission-type reactors is not related to the danger of operation, but rather to the problem of disposing of large amounts of long-lived radioactive by-products. New generation nuclear fission reactors:New generation nuclear fission reactors: Safety of operation (including resistance to terrorist attacks)Safety of operation (including resistance to terrorist attacks) AffordabilityAffordability ReliabilityReliability Absence of weaponizable sub-productsAbsence of weaponizable sub-products Absence of long-lived waste productsAbsence of long-lived waste products Ability to transmute long-lived radioactive waste products from old reactors into short-lived radioactive products.Ability to transmute long-lived radioactive waste products from old reactors into short-lived radioactive products.

49 NUCLEAR ENERGY Heavy-metal fast breeder reactor technology may be able not only to produce waste with relatively short half-lives, but in addition may be able to use current-type waste as fuel. Nuclear fission reaction (with a corresponding release of energy) occurs while a fissile material interacts with neutrons. The only useful output of a fission reactor is heat, which has to be removed by a coolant and transferred to a turbine. Most American reactors use liquid water for this purpose, limiting the temperature to about 300°C. Even then, pressurization is required to keep the water in the liquid phase.

50 NUCLEAR ENERGY The vapor pressure of water at 300°C is 85 atmospheres. Any rupture can cause loss of coolant and can lead to a meltdown. In current nuclear plants, U 235 is consumed until the amount left in the fuel rods becomes insufficient to sustain the chain reaction. It is then necessary to replace the fuel rods, the spent ones being immersed in a boric acid pool where they cool down for a number of months until the short-life radioactive materials have sufficiently decayed. Then, they are classified as waste.

51 Nuclear energy consumption by region

52 READING Aldo Vieria da Rosa, Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes, Second Edition, Elsevier, Bent Sorensen, Renewable Energy Fourth Edition, Elsevier, David Coley, Energy and Climate Change John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2010.


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