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Efficient Uses of Steam Energy in Textiles to Reduce Cost & Improve Productivity 2 nd International Conference on Textile & Apparel, ICTA-2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Efficient Uses of Steam Energy in Textiles to Reduce Cost & Improve Productivity 2 nd International Conference on Textile & Apparel, ICTA-2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Efficient Uses of Steam Energy in Textiles to Reduce Cost & Improve Productivity 2 nd International Conference on Textile & Apparel, ICTA-2012

2 What We Do? o Forbes Marshall is an ISO 9001 company specializing in the Field of Steam Engineering & Control Instrumentation o We are working with steam for last 106 years and have our manufacturing facility in India and others in joint venture with Spirax Sarco, ARCA, Krohne, Codel & Vynce. o We manufacture Steam Boiler (NG/Diesel/Solid fuel fired), Exhaust Gas Boiler and almost all the steam system accessories.



5 Energy Audit o Forbes Marshall has an Energy Audit division having expertise in specific fields. o Forbes Marshall has conducted over 100 detailed energy audits across the industry covering each and every process including dyeing units, washing units, denim plants etc. o In each of our audits we identified the opportunity for savings ranging from 20% to 30%. o Successful implementation of our audit recommendations of these plants has yielded significant improvements in Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC).

6 Why Steam? o Fuel used for generating steam accounts for about 50% of total utility cost. o Scarcity of Natural Gas, increase in cost of fuel and hence the steam costs o Effective steam management plays a role in Fuel Savings - which can be leveraged for cost competitiveness. Reducing fuel cost is the only route to cut costs substantially. Product Quality – Maintaining proper steam parameters ensures product quality, e.g. uniform colour, print, brightness etc. Productivity -Improving batch timings on equipment.

7 Benchmarking where do we stand ? Forbes Marshall studies of over 60 textile plants reveal differences in fuel consumption within the industry. 39% difference in Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) between the best and average plants. The worst plant consumes more than 3 times the amount of fuel as compared to the best plant.

8 Why is the best plant the best ? Differences in Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) across plants on account of: Efficient steam generation Optimized steam distribution & utilization Recovering condensate & flash steam Proper steam trapping

9 Comparative Study Capacity (Kg) Ideal Steam Consumption with Right Steam and condensate loop (Without Heat Recovery/With Heat Recovery* (Kg/Batch) Actual Steam consumption (Kg/Batch) Required Steam Pressure (Barg) Actual Steam Pressure (Barg) Batch time (mins) Max Gradient (°C/min) LightMediumDarkLightMediumDark /281559/379641/ /460711/511770/ / / / / / / / / /

10 Common issues found because of not adopting right steam engineering practices- Not getting right pressure & temperature in the m/c Batch time goes high and product quality hampered Proper steam trapping is not in practice Running boiler at lower pressure Not using PRV before Process machine Not using temperature control Many of the time traps are bypassed Steam distribution system is not proper Steam mains are oversized or undersized Traps and valves leakage Insulation of Steam & Condensate line is not proper Not recovering condensate & flash steam Feed water temperature is ambient Boiler blowdown is manual

11 A 1/8 inch hole in steam main can waste 15 tons of coal or 9 tons of fuel oil per year. Valve Leakage

12 A leaking 25 NB Thermodynamic Trap on a 7 bar line will lose steam at the rate of 18 kg/hr. This translates to a loss of more than 150 Tons of steam annually.

13 Steam is venting to the atmosphere

14 No Steam Trap / Group Trapping in Vertical Cylinder Dryer


16 General Practice in Vertical Dryers Group trapping 4 bar(g) Over heated + excess dried cloth

17 Recommended Hookup – Vertical Dryers

18 Existing Hookup – Soft Flow

19 Recommended Hookup –

20 Typical Steam Circuit: Pan Boiler Feed Pump Feed Tank Make-up Water Vat Condensate Steam Process Vessel Space Heating System

21 The Steam and Condensate Loop Boiler 100% Input Process Distribution losses 5-7% 85% Boiler losses % 20% Condensate 60% Process use So, for 1 Ton steam for process, fuel used equal to 1.67 Ton

22 Steam use in process – 60% Different losses – 40%

23 Steam Generation Two things are directly effect boiler steam generation – - Boiler operating pressure & Feed water temperature Poor boiler efficiency due to- Fluctuating loads – improper loading on the boiler which can be addressed by proper boiler selection, capacity, burner turndown, etc. Absence of diagnostics to take corrective action – same can be addressed by steam and oil flow metering, stack monitoring with boiler load management and online efficiency check. Manual Blow down - because of over blow down losses of money and less blow down increases the risk of boiler life.

24 Cost of a Boiler – Oil/Gas fired

25 Steam to Fuel Ratio Radiation Fuel Flow Burner Losses Stack Enthalpy Un Burnt Boiler Draft Blow down Steam Flow Air S:F is simply a ratio of Steam and Fuel BOILER HOUSE DIVISON

26 What affects Fuel Bill? Excess Air % Feed Water Temperature Stack temperature Un burnt losses Number of On-Offs Scaling on tubes Soot Deposition Blow down TDS Moisture in Fuel

27 What to Monitor inside Boiler House ? 1.Steam Flow 2.Steam Pressure 3.Fuel Flow 4.S: F ratio 5.Stack Temp 6.% O 2 in Flue gas 7.Feed Water Temp 8.Blow down TDS 9.Furnace Pressure

28 Deviation in 2% oxygen Results in 1.5 % Excess Fuel Consumption 10 % Excess Blowdown will amount to 2 % Excess Fuel Consumption Factuals

29 Boiler Efficiency Monitoring System

30 Radiation Fuel Flow Burner Boiler Draft Blow down Steam Flow Air In Direct Efficiency = { + } + + Losses Stack Enthalpy Un Burnt Boiler Efficiency

31 FuelScope for savings (%) Gas11.2 % Liquid11.8 % Solid17.1 % No Matter which fuel type you look at, the scope of savings is 10 % to 15 % at least. No boiler is an exception Conclusion

32 Steam Distribution High distribution loss across plants on account of - o Improper line sizing o Improper insulation o Improper line routing & condensate removal from steam lines These losses can be addressed by - o Proper design of the distribution network, i.e.; proper line sizing without extra provisions for expansions o Proper insulation and efficiency checking mechanism o Proper condensate removal from steam lines o Diagnostics – pressure and temperature gauges, steam flow meters, etc.

33 Distribute Steam at High Pressure This will have the following advantages: –Smaller bore steam pipes needed and therefore less heat (energy) loss due to the smaller surface area. –Lower capital cost of steam mains, both materials such as pipes, flanges and support work and labour. –Lower capital cost of insulation (lagging). –The boiler can be operated at the higher pressure corresponding to its optimum operating condition, thereby operating more efficiently. –The thermal storage capacity of the boiler is increased, helping it to cope more efficiently with fluctuating loads, and a reduced risk of priming and carryover

34 Pipe Sizing Greater Cost Greater Heat Loss Greater Volume of Condensate Formed Lower Pressure to Steam Users Not Enough Volume of Steam Water Hammer and Erosion

35 Waterhammer Sagging Main Slug of water from condensate Vibration and noise caused by waterhammer Condensate

36 Relaying to Higher Level Steam Relay to high level Drain Points m Fall 1/250 Steam Flow Flow

37 Proper Condensate Drain Condensate Pocket Steam Trap Set 25/30m Cross Section Steam Trap Set Steam Flow Correct Incorrect

38 Branch Connections Correct Incorrect Steam Condensate

39 Drainage of Condensate from Steam Line Steam Flow Separator

40 Fig. Temperature profile across a heat exchange surface Importance of Moisture Separator

41 Steam Utilization Steam Trapping - o In most plants, trap selection is an issue on heating applications. o Group trapping on equipment also needs to be addressed. o Across textile plant audits and surveys we have conducted we find that only 50% of the installed traps are OK.

42 TD Traps are used in Process, it should be float trap Disadvantages of TD: -Intermittent discharge. -Condensates not removed properly, get water logged. -Increase steam consumption by 8~10% -Increase process time By 25~30%

43 Ball Float Trap: Ensures proper removal of condensate from the process as soon as it forms. Recommended for process application.

44 Condensate & Flash Steam Recovery o Huge gap between quantum of condensate being recovered and potential for recovery observed across all plants. o Across many plants, boiler feed water temperature is ambient and condensate is being drained. o In plants where condensate is recovered, it is doing using an electrical pump leading to loss of useful heat. o Flash steam is normally not recovered and is vented. Flash steam can be recovered and used for feed water heating.

45 * This calculation is made for diesel fired boiler. Similarly it can be done for gas fired boiler.

46 o Condensate water contains 20% energy of steam. Returning condensate improves the feed water temperature and thus lowers fuel bill. o Returning condensate to feed water tank cuts the makeup water requirements. o The condensate returned does not need to undergo water treatment and thus saving treatment cost. o It has no TDS. It reduces the requirement of blowdown thereby curtailing blowdown losses. o Reduce the cost for oxygen scavenging chemicals, since the improved temperature will reduce the amount of dissolve oxygen almost 75%.


48 Benefits of Condensate Recovery:


50 Energy Content in Dye Liquor Not considering losses the Process Heat Recovery in Dyeing m/c 45 % 15 % Dye Bath Liquor Cooling Water Energy Content

51 Benefits of Dye Liquor Heat Recovery o Recover heat from dye liquor 60~80 deg C from the dyeing machine. Savings up to 15% in steam used for hot water preparation. o Pre-heats process water to the dyeing machine. 1-2 extra batches per week possible. o Facilities low temperature discharge to ETP. Helpful for effluent treatment. o Eliminates pressure fluctuation of boiler.

52 Dye Liquor Heat Recovery System

53 Trap Management Selection of right Trap Bypass Leakage Stop Leakages Insulation Condensate Recovery Flash Steam Recovery Stop Blowdown Losses Feedwater tank Management Stop Waste (12-15%) Enconomy opportunities

54 Optimization ( 8-10%) Waste Management Steam Flowmetering Dye Liquore Heat Recovery Efficiency Optimisation Liquor ratio control Steam Pressure Control Temperature Control Instant Hot water supply Dryness of Steam Capacity Utilisation Encon opportunities

55 Encon Opportunities Boiler Efficiency Monitoring Waste Heat Recovery Boiler from Generator Thermic Fluid Generator- Efficiency % optimisation Hot water from DG set Jacket Optimization Waste Management Heat Recovery (7-8%)

56 Our recommendations which included – o Optimized steam generation o Improved steam distribution system o Proper selection and sizing of steam traps o Better management of the process like installing temprature & pressure controls o Utilizing waste heat recovery o Recovering condensate with flash steam to improve the boiler performance

57 Copyright Forbes Marshall, Forbes Marshall has a Consultancy Division worked for the project design and consultancy for steam, water & air distribution system to make the industry energy efficient and sustainable. Forbes Marshall has done Consultancy in many industries of Bangladesh. Few of them are, Hameem Denim, DBL, Ecotex, GMS composite, Graphics Textils, etc.

58 Copyright Forbes Marshall, One of Many Successes in Bangladesh !! Cutting Down Costs Industry Knit Concern LocationNarayangong Steam Usage Fabric Dyeing, Finishing & Garments Fuel Gas Before Energy Audit - -They have a requirement of 3~4 TPH boiler - Their machine was starving for steam After Energy Audit & Implementing Recommendations – Till now they have no shortage of steam and no requirement of steam boiler Reason found : Wastage and leakage of steam in different points Condensate was not recovered Boiler was running under pressure Too much blowdown losses Live steam wastages from garments section.

59 Copyright Forbes Marshall, One of Many Successes! Cutting Down Costs Industry Textile Processing Unit LocationMadhya Pradesh Steam Usage In Process eqpt – Stenters, Back filling M/cs, Calendar M/c etc Fuel Wood The objective - Improve SPFC from 0.33 kgs wood/mt cloth (Rs 0.66/ mt cloth). Energy conservation recommendations implemented by customer -optimized fuel management – sizing. -Optimized steam generation -undertook better management of process like temp control. -optimized waste heat recovery -reduced losses on account of inappropriate / in-operational trapping The Results? The SPFC came down to 0.28 Kg Wood/ Mt Cloth (Rs0.58/MtCloth)!!

60 One of Many Successes! Cutting Down Costs Industry Textile Processing Unit LocationGujarat Steam Usage Yarn Dyeing M/cs Fuel HSD The objective – Reduce Fuel Consumption Energy conservation recommendations implemented by customer -Optimized steam generation -Reduced losses in steam distribution circuit -undertook better management of process like temp control. -optimized waste heat recovery – dye liquor, condensate & flash recovery. -reduced losses on account of inappropriate / in-operational trapping The Results? Customer Saves Rs 30 Lakhs/year!! BeforeAfter Audit Fuel Consumption (lts/day)1, Costs (Rs/day)17,2509,020

61 One of Many Successes! Cutting Down Costs

62 One of Many Successes! Cutting Down Costs

63 Find out where you stand!!! Get a free scoping study done by FM Experts Fuel prices would continue to spiral upwards……. & so would your losses! The longer you wait….. The more your losses accumulate!



66 Bangladesh Office Address: 3 rd Floor, Rupsha Tower, Kamal Ataturk Avenue, Road -17, Banani C/A, Dhaka. Website:

67 Thank You

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