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Case Studies and Success Stories Swedish International Development Agency S ESSION 10 United Nations Environment Program Division of Technology Industry.

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Presentation on theme: "Case Studies and Success Stories Swedish International Development Agency S ESSION 10 United Nations Environment Program Division of Technology Industry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Case Studies and Success Stories Swedish International Development Agency S ESSION 10 United Nations Environment Program Division of Technology Industry and Economy ACME A pplying C LEANER PRODUCTION to M ULTILATERAL E NVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS

2 OUTLINE Objectives of this session 1/ Cases studies on CP and UNFCCC > Case #1 - Pulp and Paper > Case #2 - Textile > Other examples 2/ Cases studies on CP and Basel Convention > Case #1 - Tannery > Case #2 - Electroplating > Other examples 3/ Cases studies on CP and Stockholm Convention > Case #1 - Pulp and Paper > Other examples ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 2 / 36

3 Name of the Company: Agarwal Duplex LTD., Muzaffarnagar, INDIA Production: Kraft paper and board from waste paper. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the entire plant was taken as focus area. CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 3 / 36

4 Operation Sources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated Electricity Generation DG sets- GHG emissions - Noise - Solid - Capacity Utilization - Due to frequent power failures of the electricity through grid supply the paper machines use to stop and there by the waste of paper because of breaking of paper while rolling them into reels - The capacity utilization of the machines was low - High GHG emissions from the use of Diesel in DG Sets - Low quality of electricity supplied Steam Production Coal fired BoileGHG- Use of fossil fuel CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 4 / 36

5 CP technique used: > Process optimization > Input material change > Technology change CP options identified: 1. Replace the existing boiler with a new fluidised bed boiler of hogh pressure which uses bagasse as a fuel in place of coal in the old boiler. 2. Replace the diesel generating set for electricity production with a extraction cum condensing turbine and use the steam from the new high pressure boiler. CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 5 / 36

6 RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment Operational cost Net annual savings Payback period Reduction in GHG emissions 2 million US$ same as earlier 1.5 million US$ 16 months ~ Tons per year CP & UNFCCC Case #1 - Pulp and Paper ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 6 / 36

7 CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 7 / 36 Name of the Company: Luthra Dyeing and Printing Mills, Surat, INDIA Production: Printed and dyed fabric of polyester, cotton, rayon. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the boiler house was taken as focus area.

8 Operation Sources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated Steam generation BoilerFlue Gases Un-burnts in Ash - Air-fuel ratio is not maintained - No monitoring of relevant parameters (O2 or CO2) - No device/method for heat recovery - Air ingress through various portion - Air quantity and pressure is not sufficient - Distribution of primary air through grate - Sizing of coal not proper - Design of grate not appropriate - Firing rate is not uniform - Manual ash removal - Poor fuel quality and combustion is not proper CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM (1) ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 8 / 36 CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile

9 Operation Sources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated Steam generation BoilerBlow-down Radiation Loss - Bad Boiler feed water quality - Condensate is not recovered - Boiler drum TDS is not maintained as required - Un-insulated portions of boiler - Openings CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM (2) CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 9 / 36

10 CP technique used : > Good House Keeping > Operational Practices > Process Optimization > Raw Material Substitution > New Technology > New Product Design > Onsite Recycle & Reuse > Equipment Modification CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED (1) CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 10 / 36

11 Waste StreamCP Options Heat Loss due to - Install air heater for recovery of waste heat Flue gas - Plug all the air leakages into boiler furnace Unburnt in Ash - Conversion of existing boiler to the FBC boiler - Replacing existing boiler to FBC Boiler - Optimize the coal sizing by proper crushing & sieving - Modify the existing grate by reducing the gaps between the rods - Optimize the firing rate by use of stoker firing Blow down loss - Install water treatment system (RO) plant - Change the water used in the boiler from tanker water to Municipal - Supply Water - Install conductivity meter to check boiler drum water quality and therefore optimize the blow down rate - Recover flash steam from boiler blow down - Re-circulate condensate from steam separator and wherever possible Radiation Loss - Insulate all the bare and damaged portions - Insulate the flanges (125 Flanges) - Installation of Steam Traps ( Thermo Dynamic Traps) CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 11 / 36

12 RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment Net annual savings Payback period Reduction in GHG emissions US$ US$ 11 months 1300 Tons per year CP & UNFCCC Case #2 - Textile ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 12 / 36

13 CP & UNFCCC Other examples - A ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 13 / 36 ILUKA MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING Focus areaAir emissions and heat from kiln CP OptionWaste heat recovery, initially thinking of installing high-cost wet scrubber technology. ResultsLarge investment (but feasible) especially when compared to traditional end-of-pipe treatment system. Reduction in GHG emissions by Tons/year

14 CP & UNFCCC Other examples - B ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 14 / 36 BUTTERCUP BAKERIES AUSTRALIA Focus areaBaking oven CP OptionInstallation of heat exchanger for a waste heat recovery system. ResultsInvestment 10,000 US$ Annual savings US$ Reduction in GHG 20 %

15 CP & UNFCCC Other examples - C ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 15 / 36 G STEEL PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED THAILAND Focus areaElectric Arc Furnaces (EAF) CP OptionRepositioning of EAF burner to increase consistency of injection and consumption of oxygen via oxygen lance. ResultsInvestment 10,000 US$ Annual savings US$ Reduction in GHG Tons/year

16 ASSOCIATED MOTORWAYS LIMITED SRI LANKA CP & UNFCCC Other examples - D ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 16 / 36 Focus areaCompressors and Compressed Air System CP OptionReplacement of old inefficient compressor with screw compressors. ResultsInvestment 29,500 US$ Annual savings 43,137 US$ Reduction in GHG 102 Tons/year

17 CP & UNFCCC Other examples - E ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 17 / 36 HANOI CERAMIC TILES VIETNAM Focus areaVertical dryer CP OptionUse of waste hot air from rapid and final cooling in the vertical dryer. ResultsInvestment 21,500 US$ Annual savings 36,720 US$ Reduction in GHG 328 Tons/year

18 Name of the Company: Mohd. Usman Tanneries, INDIA Production: Leather from sheep and goat skins (from raw hides to finished stage). Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the tanning section was taken as focus area. CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery ACME - Session 12 – Cases studies and success stories - 18 / 36

19 Operation Sources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated Chrome tanning Spent tanning bath, wash streams Wastewater- Improper water measurement - Chemicals weighing - Spillages of the chemicals from the drum feeding hole - No recovery of spent chrome CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 19 / 36 CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery

20 CP technique used: > Recovery, recycle and reuse. CP options identified: > Recover the chrome by addition of magnesium oxide. CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 20 / 36 CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery

21 RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment Operational cost Net annual savings Payback period Reduction in toxicity and volume of hazardous waste generation US$ US$/year US$ 14 months ~ 15 Tons per year due to negligible amount of chrome in waste water. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 21 / 36 CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #1 - Tannery

22 Name of the Company: Atlas cycles, Sonepat, INDIA Production: Bicycles. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and following focus areas identified: 1. Hazardous waste generation from electroplating section. 2. Cyanide bearing waste from case hardening section. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 22 / 36 CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating

23 OperationSources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated Chrome Plating Spent plating bath and wash streams Wastewater with Hexa valent Chrome - High quantity of water used - Hexavalent chrome used - Conversion of hexavalent chrome to trivalent chrome by ferrous sulphate Cyanide Plating for Case hardening Spent plating bath and wash streams Waste water with cyanide - Chlorine for cyanide removal - Large amount of lime used - Presence of ferrocyanide compounds making the sludge hazardous CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 23 / 36 CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating

24 CP technique used: > Process optimization > Input material change > Technology change CP options identified: 1. Replacing use of ferrous sulphate by sodium met-bi-sulphite for reduction of hexavalent chrome to trivalent chrome. 2. Adoption of new technology to replace case hardening by cyanide plating to gas carburizing. CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 24 / 36

25 CP OPTIONINVESTMENTSAVINGS/ BENEFITSPAY BACK 1NILNo monetary savings in process but hazardous sludge reduced by 30% (15 Tons/year). IMMEDIATE 2US $ 10,000No direct monetary savings but hazardous waste sludge reduced by 74% (50 Tons/year). IMMEDIATE RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 25 / 36 CP & BASEL CONVENTION Case #2 - Electroplating

26 DUTCH IRON FOUNDRIES Focus areaSand reclamation CP OptionOptimisation of the sand dosing system. ResultsInvestment: 0 US$ Annual savings: US$ Reduction in hazardous wastes: Tons/year Reduction of raw material used: - 7,5% Other examples - A CP & BASEL CONVENTION ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 26 / 36

27 DINTEX DYECHEM LTD. Vinyl Sulphone Intermediate Manufacturer. INDIA Focus areaUnit processes : Sulfonation, Condensation CP OptionAcid recovery system and spray drier. ResultsInvestment US$ Annual savings US$ Reduction in hardous wastes Tons/year Other examples - B CP & BASEL CONVENTION ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 27 / 36

28 Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products UNITED STATES Focus areaReactor wash solution with alcohol, phenols formaldehyde resins and water. CP OptionOn site recycling and recovery by distilling and reusing the alcohol. ResultsInvestment Not reported Annual savings US$ Reduction in hardous wastes - 67% Other examples - C CP & BASEL CONVENTION ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 28 / 36

29 Manufacture of Lead Acid Battery Plates FRANCE Focus areaBattery Plate Manufacturing line. CP OptionProcess optimization of the manufacturing line by changing to automatic plant. ResultsInvestment US$ Annual savings Not reported Reduction in hardous wastes - 85% Other examples - D CP & BASEL CONVENTION ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 29 / 36

30 Other examples - E CP & BASEL CONVENTION Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products (Solar Cell Wafers, Submarine silencer, satellite dish components) UNITED STATES Focus areaChemical Etching on stainless steel and Nickle. CP OptionBaking soda/water developer has been substituted for a combination of methylene chloride, 1,1,1 trichloroethane and perchlorethylene solvent ; Alkaline cleaners have been substituted for methanol ; sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide mix has replaced a chrome-based brightener Process optimization of the manufacturing line by changing to automatic plant. ResultsInvestment Not reported Annual savings Not reported Reduction in hardous wastes - 20% (135 Tons) ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 30 / 36

31 Name of the Company: ITC, Bhadrachalam Papers Ltd. Bhadrachalam, INDIA. Production: Paper. Context: Cleaner Production studies were conducted in the industry. The CP Team was formed and the paper bleaching section was taken as focus area. ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 31 / 36 CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper

32 Operation Sources of waste Nature of waste Probable Causes of waste generated BleachingBleaching process - Hazardous Air Emissions - Water Pollution Load - Energy Loss - Use of elemental chlorine in form of bleaching powder/ NaOCl - Old Technology CAUSE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE STREAM CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 32 / 36

33 CP technique used: > Input material change > Technology change CP options identified: 1. Installation of a new R8 process chlorine dioxide generation plant of 7 tons per day capacity. 2. Modify the bleaching sequence to chlorine dioxide / ozone / chlorine dioxide. CLEANER PRODUCTION OPTIONS IDENTIFIED CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 33 / 36

34 RESULTS OF THE CP OPTION IMPLEMENTATION Investment Net annual savings Payback period Results 10,32 million US$ 4 million US$ 2,15 years - Reduction in AOX emissions. - Improved brightness quality CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Case #1 - Pulp and Paper ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 34 / 36

35 Other example CP & STOCKHOLM CONV. Polyerethane manufacturing GERMANY Focus areaAdsorption of CCl3F. CP OptionUse of charcoal bed for adsorption of CCl3F. ResultsInvestment US $ Elimination of CCl3F from the environment ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 35 / 36

36 CONCLUSION End of session 10 Thank you for your attention… Any questions? ACME - Session 10 – Cases studies and success stories - 36 / 36


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