Presentation on theme: "The current and future role of SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) in the European Waste Management Industry Cologne, 26 October 2006."— Presentation transcript:
The current and future role of SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) in the European Waste Management Industry Cologne, 26 October 2006
TABLE OF CONTENT 1)Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF): definition / drivers 2)SRF: composition and uses 3)Requirements of industrial users of SRF: need for standardization of SRF / future work of CEN/TC 343 SRF 4)European overview: SRF market potential / SRF market production 5)European overview: a) Finland b) Germany b) Germany c) Austria d) Italy 6)The future SRF under a European perspective (Thematic Strategy) 7)Conclusions: benefits of SRF in the European context
1) SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) : definition SRF is a solid fuel prepared from non-hazardous waste, meeting the classification and specification requirements of CEN-TS15359. The SRF is processed, homogenised and up-graded to a quality that can be traded amongst producers and users. SRF is a tradable and storable fuel that, depending on quality, can be used with a high electricity efficiency. The use of SRF saves other resources, it contributes to the EU strategy Security of Energy Supply and helps achieve the Kyoto targets in terms of avoided CO 2 emissions. The Landfill Directive requires diversion of biodegradable waste from landfill. Some member States have already implemented a ban for combustible waste or organic waste in landfill. Other recovery options for mixed combustible waste are limited. Direct incineration plants are well suited for large cities but their permitting procedure is difficult and time consuming. SRF
1) SRF: drivers* * Source ERFO – European Recovered Fuel Organisation: SRF Markets, March 2006. INDUSTRY ISSUES DRIVERS SOLUTION PROVIDED BY SRF Landfill Directive Diversion biomass MSW, with its biomass content, is not disposed in landfill, but recovered as energy MSW, with its biomass content, is not disposed in landfill, but recovered as energy Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Directive Biomass content Energy production through SRF co-firing contributes to reach the Directive targets Best Available Practice Energy/climate change (Emission Trading Directive) 1 ton of SRF (through its production from MSW and its co- firing ) reduces emissions of CO 2 by not less than 1 ton CO 2 ** Energy cost Oil/gas/coal, CO 2 SRF has the lowest production cost amongst RES and lowers electricity production costs ** Average value of CO 2 saving, to be validated case by case by applying the specific methodology set by CEN. In Italy tests on significative samples, certified by external body (Stazione Sperimentale Combustibili), showed a reduction of 1,75 tonCO 2 for 1 ton of SRF.
2) SRF: composition and uses Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) DIRECT USE VIA GASIFICATION Uses of SRF COAL PETCOKE LIGNITE COAL GAS ORIMULSION Using in conjunction with coal and petcoke in: Coalfired power plants (10%) Cement kilns (over 40%) CHP ind. Boilers (12%) Using in conjunction as syn-gas in power plants (10%) SRF potential uses Derived from dry fraction from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) chlorine-free plastic waste and rubber dry fraction from Industrial waste In order to deliver high and constant quality (High Quality SRF) calorific value close to coal levels (more than 5.000 kcal/kg, i.e. 22.000 kjoule/kg)
3) REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL USERS OF SRF: Need for standardization of SRF At present recovered fuels are still considered wastes, under the European laws and in the majority of European countries. In order to simplify trade, standardized SRF should be at least qualified for the notifications procedure of the Basel green list. Although the costs for re-permitting under the Waste Incineration Directive (WID) are moderate, combustion plants do not want to be labelled as waste incinerators. The present proposal for the revision of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) and a proposal for a European Biomass Action Plan (BAP) include elements by which the use of waste as a fuel may be made easier. European standards for the clustering of SRF may be used to tackle this important issue.
3) REQUIREMENTS OF INDUSTRIAL USERS OF SRF: Future work of CEN/TC 343 The technical specifications (TSs) proposed by CEN/TC 343 were approved by unanimous vote and were published in 2006. TSs validation is under way in the EU funded project QUOVADIS. A third dissemination workshop was organized in June 2006. First results will be available by end 2006. Once validated, TSs will be subject to public enquiry which will put TC343 in the position to upgrade and finalize the European Norm (EN). The upgrading will take 1 to 3 years, depending on the outcome of the public enquiry (and the status of the Waste Framework Directive-WFD and Biomass Action Plan-BAP).
4) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: SRF market potential * The potential market value has been calculated considering: - - a gate fee equal to 100 /ton MSW, that is roughly equivalent to a gate fee of 200 /ton SRF - - a SRF price equal to 20 /ton SRF for cement kilns and CHP, and 60 /ton SRF for power plants By assuming a 10% substitution rate in power plants, SRF market potential (*) in EU15 amounts to 57 mio t/y, with: avoided CO 2 up 100 mio t/y a saving of fossil fuels around 30 Mtep/y a turnover of around 14 billion per year.
4) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: SRF market potential* Plant type fossil fuel substitution by HQ-SRF % potential market EU15 (Mio ton SRF/year) potential market value EU15 (Mio ) Cement kilns 15/303,5 - 7770 - 1540 Power plants 2/4 6,5 - 131.690 - 3.380 CHP ind. boilers 17 3740 tot27 - 37 6.200 - 8.660 Power plants 10338580 tot54 - 5713.100 - 13.860 94 - 100 27 - 29 avoided emissions of CO 2 (Mton/y) saving of fossil fuels (Mtep/y) ERFO SCENARIO * SCENARIO WITH POWER PLANTS @ 10% * Source ERFO – European Recovered Fuel Organisation: SRF: achieving environmental and energy-related goals markets, June 2006 (estimates refer to SRF derived from High Calorific Fraction of MSW, bulky waste, mixed commercial waste and from production specific wastes)
4) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: SRF current production* * Source ERFO – European Recovered Fuel Organisation: SRF: achieving environmental and energy-related goals markets, June 2006. (estimates refer to SRF derived from High Calorific Fraction of MSW, bulky waste, mixed commercial waste and from production specific wastes ) Data on current production and use show that SRF has been, so far, not extensively exploited as an option for MSW management. In particular, SRF use has so far been quite limited in power plants given the lack of market power of Low Quality SRF.
5) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: AUSTRIA SRF Technical Standard Guidelines - finalized end 2006 - for waste fuel issued by the Federal Ministry of Agricolture, Forestry, Environment & Water Management (on the basis of the CEN/TC 343): - determine the state of the art for the disposal in different incineration plants - set emission thresholds (related to the different plants) for the content of specific pollutants - describe sampling and sample preparation of waste fuel
a) AUSTRIA: SRF Market potential * CEMENT INDUSTRY274.000 t/y PULP- PAPERINDUSTRY797.000 t dry substance /y CHIP- AND FIBREBOARD INDUSTRY348.000 t dry substance/y POWER PLANTSApprox. 100.000 t/y BLAST FURNACEPlanned 220.000 t/y INDUSTRIAL INCINERATION PLANTS (equipped like MSW incineration plants) 500.000 t/y Recovery of waste fuels (SRF, waste fuels and waste wood) : * Source: interview to representatives of the Federal Ministry of Agricolture, Forestry, Environment & Water Management (2006).
5) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: FINLAND SRF Technical Standard The National Standard defines the procedure and requirements, by which the quality of recovered fuel, produced for the purpose of energy recovery from source-separated waste, can be controlled and reported unambiguously. TOPIC CHARACTERISTICSUNIT REPORTING PRECISION QUALITY CLASS IIIIII 1 Chlorine (dry material) % (m/m) 0,01< 0,15< 0,50< 1,50 2 Sulphur (dry material) % (m/m) 0,01< 0,20< 0,30< 0,50 3 Nitrogen (dry material) % (m/m) 0,01< 1,00< 1,50< 2,50 4 Potassium and sodium (dry mat.) % (m/m) 0,01< 0,20< 0,40< 0,50 5 Aluminium (met.) for dry mat. % (m/m) 0,01 1)2)3) 6 Mercury (dry material) mg/kg 0,1< 0,1< 0,2< 0,5 7 Cadmium (dry material) mg/kg 0,1< 1,0< 4,0< 5,0 metallic aluminium is not allowed, but is accepted within the limits of reporting precision 1) metallic aluminium is not allowed, but is accepted within the limits of reporting precision metallic aluminium is minimized by source-separation and by the fuel production process 2) metallic aluminium is minimized by source-separation and by the fuel production process metallic aluminium content is agreed separately 3) metallic aluminium content is agreed separately
About 10 fluid bed boilers continue to use SRF under WID. The demand and production of SRF will increase in the coming years. b) FINLAND: SRF Market potential
5) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: GERMANY SRF Market potential By assuming a 3-4% substitution rate in power plants, HQ-SRF market potential in Germany amounts to 16,4 mio t/y, with avoided CO 2 up 16 mio t/y, with a saving of fossil fuels around 8 Mtep/y. Plant type fossil fuel substitution by HQ-SRF % potential market Germany (Mio ton SRF/year) Cement kilns401,4 Power plants2/41,0 - 2,0 CHP ind. boilers 5 tot 7,4 - 8,4 SCENARIO INCLUDING ALL POWER PLANTS @ 3/4% Power plants3/410,0 tot 16,4 avoided emissions of CO 2 (Mton/y) 28,7 saving of fossil fuels (Mtep/y) 8,2
c) GERMANY: RAL system for SRF* quality assurance Acceptance area Positive sorting of HCF (High Calorific Fraction) SRF production SRF storage Process Chain Input control Process control Product control: internal and external QA chain This system, certified with ISO 9001, lead to a SRF controlled production verified with the RAL system. Acceptance area Positive sorting of HCF (High Calorific Fraction) SRF production SRF storage Process Chain Input control Process control Product control: internal and external * Source REMONDIS, 2005
c) GERMANY: example of quality control* Regular sampling during production Single samples are combined to 500-t-mixed-samples Sampling behind last step of size reduction Delivery to the customer * Source REMONDIS, 2005
c) GERMANY: some experiences of SRF co-firing* Hard coal, RWE Gerstein, 220 kt/a Hard coal, RWE Gerstein, 220 kt/a Lignite, Vattenfall Jänschwalde, 400 kt/a Lignite, Vattenfall Jänschwalde, 400 kt/a Lignite, RWE Berrenrath, 70 kt/a Lignite, RWE Berrenrath, 70 kt/a Cement kiln: operations of many use 900 - 1200 kt/a in Germany Cement kiln: operations of many use 900 - 1200 kt/a in Germany CHP, Neumünster, 150 kt/a CHP, Neumünster, 150 kt/a * Source ERFO, 2006
5) EUROPEAN OVERVIEW: ITALY HQ-SRF under the Italian Legislation SRF for standard use in dedicated plant is classified as special waste SRF for standard use in dedicated plant is classified as special waste The HQ-SRF, utilized in co-firing in power plants and cement kilns, is classified as fuel The HQ-SRF, utilized in co-firing in power plants and cement kilns, is classified as fuel In proportion to its fraction of biomass, SRF is also a renewable energy source (RES) In proportion to its fraction of biomass, SRF is also a renewable energy source (RES) SRF and HQ-SRF benefit of the Italian incentives schemes designed for electricity produced from RES SRF and HQ-SRF benefit of the Italian incentives schemes designed for electricity produced from RES The material End of Waste - criteria set out by new WFD proposal (Art. 11) THE ITALIAN HQ-SRF LEGISLATION IS IN LINE WITH UE LAWS AND DECREE The ECJ (European Courts of Justice) rulings The current WFD (Waste Framework Directive) The Thematic Strategy
d) ITALY: SRF Technical Standard The chemical-physical properties of the HQ-SRF and the normal grade SRF as per Italian Standards (UNI 9903) GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS HIGH-GRADE SRF UNDER ITALIAN LEGISLATION NORMAL SRF UNDER ITALIAN LEGISLATION Physical Aspect Sizemm L.H.V.°Kj/kg a.r. (as received)> 20.000> 15.000* Umidityas received< 18%< 25% Cld.m. (dry matter)< 0,7%< 0,9%* Sd.m.< 0,3%< 0,6%* Ashd.m.< 15%< 20% Crmg/kg d.m.< 70< 100 Cumg/kg d.m.< 50< 300 Mnmg/kg d.m.< 200< 400 Nimg/kg d.m.< 30< 40 Asmg/kg d.m.< 5< 9 Cdmg/kg d.m.< 3 < 7 Hgmg/kg d.m.< 1 Pbmg/kg d.m.< 100< 200 - - A proposed European Norm for the standardization of SRF is expected to be edited soon by CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation) for a validation program. - - The proposal - that will be published as Technical Specification (TS) is the result of the activity of a specific technical committee (CEN-TC343) appointed by the European Commission for the purpose. - - During the validation time (three years) and until the final approval of the European Norm (EN) each member state can apply its national standard
d) ITALY: SRF Market potential Nothwithstanding limited coal usage in Italy, the potential of the HQ-SRFs utilisation in existing plants (cement kilns and power plants) could allow to recover up to 10 milion tons of MSW (50% of MSW currently disposed of in landfill). HQ-SRF co-firing scenario 10% thermal substituion in power plants, i.e. existing coal fired power plants + new coal fired units located in Vado Ligure (Savona) and Monfalcone (Gorizia) + coal repowering of power plant located in Civitavecchia (Rome) and further units located in Fusina (Venice). Existing cement kilns (40% of thermal substituition) The co-firing of HQ-SRF could also allow: avoidance of the emission of about 9,2 Million Tons of CO 2 per year (about 10% of the Kyoto Protocol targets) avoidance of the emission of about 9,2 Million Tons of CO 2 per year (about 10% of the Kyoto Protocol targets) production of electricity from Renewable Energy Sources for about 5 TWh/year (23% of the gap remaining to reach the objective under Directive 2001/77/CE) production of electricity from Renewable Energy Sources for about 5 TWh/year (23% of the gap remaining to reach the objective under Directive 2001/77/CE)
Cement kiln, Buzzi-Unicem (Cuneo) Cement kiln, Buzzi-Unicem (Cuneo) - 2 Mt/a clinker - 2 Mt/a clinker - 40 kt/a* SRF substitution rate 20% - 40 kt/a* SRF substitution rate 20% 20 kt/a of HQ-SRF, with the full recovery of MSW locally produced 20 kt/a of SRF from commercial/industrial waste Hard coal, Enel Fusina (Venezia), group 3 = 320 Mwe, Hard coal, Enel Fusina (Venezia), group 3 = 320 Mwe, - 35 kt/a** of SRF, with a partial recovery of MSW locally produced - 35 kt/a** of SRF, with a partial recovery of MSW locally produced With a potential quantity of other 70 kt/a, subject to autorizhation ** Group 4 is available for an equivalent amount, subject to autorizhation d) ITALY: some experiences
High-grade SRF Discharging and dosing Dry fraction loading High-grade SRF co-firing in cement kiln * Source I.d.e.a. GRANDA, 2006 d) ITALY: example of SRF production and use*
d) ITALY: the reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions recorded at the chimney stack of the plant
The Thematic Strategy aims, inter alia, at: promoting recovery of waste promoting recovery of waste increasing the resource efficiency increasing the resource efficiency reducing the negative environmental impact of use of natural resources reducing the negative environmental impact of use of natural resources developing common reference standard for recycling and recovery developing common reference standard for recycling and recovery moving towards a recycling and recovery society (i.e. moving up the hierarchy, away from landfill and more and more to recycling and recovery moving towards a recycling and recovery society (i.e. moving up the hierarchy, away from landfill and more and more to recycling and recovery introducing a life-cycle thinking into waste policy introducing a life-cycle thinking into waste policy 6) THE FUTURE SRF UNDER A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE
SRF is the result of a recovery process is the result of a recovery process complies with standards (national and European, when available) and aims at reducing the environmental impacts both of waste cycle and industrial plants that use it complies with standards (national and European, when available) and aims at reducing the environmental impacts both of waste cycle and industrial plants that use it is a product usable, with economic value, only and exclusively if compliant with standards and used in certain industrial plants is a product usable, with economic value, only and exclusively if compliant with standards and used in certain industrial plants is produced and used in compliance with applicable legislation (e.g. WID/IPPC) is produced and used in compliance with applicable legislation (e.g. WID/IPPC) substitutes natural resources (fossil fuels) substitutes natural resources (fossil fuels) LCA is positive LCA is positive SRF complies with Thematic Strategy 6) THE FUTURE SRF UNDER A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE
7) CONCLUSIONS: In the European arena, the use of SRF allows benefits like: Achieving goals of the Thematic Strategy Saving of natural resources / substitution of fossil fuel Compliance with ECJ rulings Achieving targets of the Kyoto Protocol (avoiding CO 2 emissions) and of European Renewable Energies legislation (due to biogenic content of SRF) Achieving recycling and reduction targets for biodegradable materials going to landfill Since mid 2006 Tecnhical Specifications (TSs) are available to describe SRF under a technical profile. It is high time for a European common policy in order to provide each Member State with a common level playing field.