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Pulp and Paper Processes for Sustainable Production Keith Larson.

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Presentation on theme: "Pulp and Paper Processes for Sustainable Production Keith Larson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pulp and Paper Processes for Sustainable Production Keith Larson

2 History of Paper Making 105 A.D. Ts'ai Lun, a Chinese court official, invented paper 105 A.D. Ts'ai Lun, a Chinese court official, invented paper mulberry bark, hemp and rags with water Paper was first produced in Egypt around 900 A.D. Paper was first produced in Egypt around 900 A.D. England early in the 14th Century England early in the 14th Century To this point all paper and books were produced by hand

3 History of Paper Making Gutenberg Press in 1436 Gutenberg Press in 1436 On September 30, 1452 Guttenberg's Bible was published On September 30, 1452 Guttenberg's Bible was published T he printing press allowed printed materials to be produced at a greater rate thus increasing the demand for paper

4 History of Paper Making First North American paper mill in 1690 near Philadelphia First North American paper mill in 1690 near Philadelphia America's first writing papers were produced by collecting, separating, and cleaning old cloth rags America's first writing papers were produced by collecting, separating, and cleaning old cloth rags The paper was made in single sheets The paper was made in single sheets

5 History of Paper Making 1798, Nicholas-Louis Robert of France invented a paper making machine that produced paper on an endless wire screen 1798, Nicholas-Louis Robert of France invented a paper making machine that produced paper on an endless wire screen Further developed in England by Brian Donkin Further developed in England by Brian Donkin Not put into service until 1804 Not put into service until 1804

6 History of Paper Making The Fourdrinier 1 st Fourdrinier machine in the US, 1827

7 History of Paper Making 1866 American Benjamin Tilghman developed the sulfite pulping process Dominant pulping process until the 1930s 1879 German chemist, C. F. Dahl, developed the Kraft pulping process 1930s dominant pulping process and still is today Two major advancements in pulping were developed in the late 1800s

8 Advantages of the Kraft Process The majority of the chemicals used in the pulping process are recoverable for use in further pulping operations The majority of the chemicals used in the pulping process are recoverable for use in further pulping operations Large amounts of energy are produced in the recovery boilers during the recovery process Large amounts of energy are produced in the recovery boilers during the recovery process The Kraft process can pulp pine trees The Kraft process can pulp pine trees

9 Pine trees are abundant throughout much of the United States. The Kraft process allowed the United States to become a major producer of paper products. However, the Kraft process has created environmental problems Ocala National Forest, Dec. 1998

10 The Modern Paper Making Process The process of making paper begins far from the paper mill itself Clearcut in Oregon's Coast Range

11 The Modern Paper Making Process Paper Making Process Overview [Chesterton, 2004]

12 The Modern Paper Making Process Wood Yard [Chesterton, 2004]

13 The Modern Paper Making Process 1) Mechanical Pulping 2) Chemimechanical 3) Thermomechanical 4) Chemimechanical and Thermomechanical Pulping (CTMP) 5) Chemical Pulping Five Methods of pulping

14 The Modern Paper Making Process The chemical method is the most popular because it produces a higher quality paper than mechanical pulping The most popular method of pulp production is the Kraft process, producing nearly 85% of all pulp in the United States This will be the focus of the pulping description

15 The Modern Paper Making Process Chesterton Pulp Digester [Chesterton, 2004]

16 The Modern Paper Making Process Chesterton Pulp washers [Chesterton, 2004]

17 The Modern Paper Making Process Chesterton Bleach Plant [Chesterton, 2004]

18 The Modern Paper Making Process Paper Machine [Chesterton, 2004]

19 The Modern Paper Making Process Recovery Evaporators [Chesterton, 2004]

20 The Modern Paper Making Process Recovery Boiler [Chesterton, 2004]

21 The Modern Paper Making Process Recovery Causticizing [Chesterton, 2004]

22 The Modern Paper Making Process Water Treatment [Chesterton, 2004]

23 The Problems and Solutions The pulp and paper industry came into its own during a period when the environmental effects of chemical plants were not well understood, and discharges were not well regulated The operation of a pulp and paper mill creates many environmental concerns

24 The Problems and Solutions One of the very first impacts of the paper industry was the deforestation of large tracts of land in the early 1900s One of the very first impacts of the paper industry was the deforestation of large tracts of land in the early 1900s Today the paper companies practice a process of sustainable forestry Today the paper companies practice a process of sustainable forestry Brush Creek, Private Land, Oregon

25 The Problems and Solutions The Sustainable Forest Initiative program was developed in 1994 by the American Forest & Paper Association to ensure forests are protected responsible environmental practices and sound business practices can be integrated to the benefit of landowners, shareholders, customers and the people they serve [aboutsfi, 2004]

26 The Problems and Solutions For every tree harvested today, the paper companies are planting five seedlings For every tree harvested today, the paper companies are planting five seedlings There is now more forestland than in 1970 There is now more forestland than in 1970 The Sustainable Forest Initiative has been a success The Sustainable Forest Initiative has been a success

27 The Problems and Solutions Many environmental concerns surround water usage Release of Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) Release of Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) and Sludge Creation of Dioxins and Furans Creation of Dioxins and Furans BOD, COD, TSS BOD, COD, TSS

28 The Problems and Solutions Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas that smells like rotten eggs At elevated levels, it can irritate the eyes and respiratory system It can be deadly at very high levels (greater than 500,000 parts per billion)

29 The Problems and Solutions No current Federal Limits on H 2 S No current Federal Limits on H 2 S In January 2000, EPA issued a Federal Register notice announcing H2S is one of the chemicals for which EPA is developing a health assessment In January 2000, EPA issued a Federal Register notice announcing H2S is one of the chemicals for which EPA is developing a health assessment Individual States are setting limits Individual States are setting limits

30 The Problems and Solutions Dioxins and Furans Most toxic chemicals known to science Most toxic chemicals known to science The most toxic compound is 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD The most toxic compound is 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD Any process that uses chlorine can change or generate chlorinated dioxins and furans Any process that uses chlorine can change or generate chlorinated dioxins and furans White Paper bleaching uses Chlorine White Paper bleaching uses Chlorine

31 (EPA/600/C-01/012, March, 2001)

32 The Problems and Solutions Reduction of Wastewater Reduce the demand for the high quality bright-white paper Reduce the demand for the high quality bright-white paper For lower quality papers use a combination of other chemicals in the bleach process (oxygen for example) For lower quality papers use a combination of other chemicals in the bleach process (oxygen for example) Do a better job of pulping the wood Do a better job of pulping the wood

33 The Problems and Solutions Ash and smoke, byproducts of burning the black liquor and fuel in the recovery boiler and power boiler, escapes thru the smoke stacks

34 The Problems and Solutions Improved electrostatic precipitators are being installed to help prevent the release of ash and smoke into the atmosphere Improved electrostatic precipitators are being installed to help prevent the release of ash and smoke into the atmosphere The process of concentrating the black liquor has been improved The process of concentrating the black liquor has been improved Use cleaner burning fuels Use cleaner burning fuels

35 Hope for the Future Still have a long way to go to prevent any environmental impact Still have a long way to go to prevent any environmental impact Operating a paper mill is a balancing act Operating a paper mill is a balancing act Cost Quality Environment Time

36 Hope for the Future Advances Toward Sustainability Sustainable Forest Initiative Program Sustainable Forest Initiative Program Recovery of Process Chemicals Recovery of Process Chemicals Recycling of Process Water Recycling of Process Water Reduction of Dioxin Production Reduction of Dioxin Production Make use of by-product Residue Make use of by-product Residue Tall Oil – used in paints, perfume, cosmetics Turpentine

37 Hope for the Future responsible environmental practices and sound business practices can be integrated to the benefit of landowners, shareholders, customers and the people they serve

38 References _and_Paper/Paper_-_the_history_and_making/Paper_- _the_history_and_making.htm, _and_Paper/Paper_-_the_history_and_making/Paper_- _the_history_and_making.htm, , (EPA/600/C-01/012, March, 2001) , (EPA/600/C-01/012, March, 2001) Profile of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Sector in Georgia, 1993, 1.html Profile of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Sector in Georgia, 1993, 1.html World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement: Pulp and Paper Mills. Draft Technical Background Document. The Environment Department, Washington, D.C. World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement: Pulp and Paper Mills. Draft Technical Background Document. The Environment Department, Washington, D.C. World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement: Pulp and Paper Mills. Darft Technical Background Document. The Environment Department, Washington, D.C. World Bank Pollution Prevention and Abatement: Pulp and Paper Mills. Darft Technical Background Document. The Environment Department, Washington, D.C.


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