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Commercial / Residential Applications. Why Water? Most efficient 5,1 cm water pipe = 61 cm air duct Less space Higher mass and thermal conductivity Benefit.

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Presentation on theme: "Commercial / Residential Applications. Why Water? Most efficient 5,1 cm water pipe = 61 cm air duct Less space Higher mass and thermal conductivity Benefit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Commercial / Residential Applications

2 Why Water? Most efficient 5,1 cm water pipe = 61 cm air duct Less space Higher mass and thermal conductivity Benefit of thermal storage

3 Why WSHP? COP ~ 5 Efficiency 500% Boilers/fossil fuel furnaces < 100% More compact than Air cooled Linked to outdoor WB or deep earth temperatures ----->Higher efficiencies and longer service life

4 Why Geothermal? Less dependency on Temperature variations ~ Constant Ground temperature Utilizes the natural thermal properties of earth. Eliminates boiler and heat rejecter installation. Eliminates all outdoor equipment Reduces mechanical room space Single zone applications Higher efficiency

5 Open Loop Applications Open Vertical loop with a recharge well Well ----->Heat Pump ----->Separate recharge well Open Vertical loop with a Surface discharge Well ----->Heat Pump ----->Pond, Stream or River Open Loop surface water system Pond,Stream,river ----->Heat Pump ----->Water body

6 Open Loop-Thumb rules Water well which can produce 2,0 to 2,6 l/m per kW Water quality must be good to prevent fouling and clogging of pipes Ground water from a fresh water aquifer better than surface water –constant temperature –thermodynamic advantage –Surface water - organic materials

7 Open Loop-Thumb rules Shut off valves for ease of servicing Boiler drains - teed for acid flushing P/T plugs to measure temperature and pressure Cu HX recommended Cu-Ni HX -Heavy scale Expansion tank to minimize mineral formation by air exposure Water control valve(Slow closing) on discharge line to prevent mineral precipitation

8 Closed Loop Applications Vertical Borehole loop –Least land space –High excavation/drilling costs –Holes drilled m –Typical hole 10 cm diameter for each 3 to 4 kW of cooling capacity –Minimal spacing is about 3 m –U-shaped pipe (HDPE) –Computer model determines exact length.

9 Closed Loop Applications Horizontal trenched or bored loop –More land space –Low excavation costs –Less expensive installation –Straight length U-tube laid flat in wide trenches –Typical depth is 1,5 m –Polyethylene coil tube (flat Slinky)

10 Cost Comparison for decision Vertical, Horizontal straight tube, Horizontal Slinky Parameters –Land –Cost of pipe –Cost of trenching –Cost of Excavation Example Vertical 122 m deep BHE requires 21 sq m SA with wells separated by 5 m=HHE 2.5 m trench will have to be 183 m in length with 5m separation = 848 m of land/40 times land area Straight pipe - Higher trenching cost Slinky - Higher pipe costs

11 Soil/Rock Conditions Open Loops –Simple –Can the aquifer support the volume extraction and injection? Closed Loops –Large soil categories Dry soil wet soil saturated soil –Solid rocks (granite, igneous rocks) - Highest thermal conductivity –Dry sands and clay - Lowest thermal conductivity

12 Grouting Why Grout? –Drilling geothermal boreholes Surface water penetrates downward into the aquifer Hydraulic characteristics of aquifer degraded –Bentonite (Clay) + Water ---> Swells 10 to 20 times volume –forms a gel with low viscosity and semi-rigid when set –Good seal between upper and lower aquifers

13 Geothermal and Hydronics Most acceptable indoor climate Floor temperature: 19 and 29°C Air temp at head level: 20 and 24°C Air convection methods - Warm, buoyant air rises wastefully to the ceiling in convection-heated rooms, warming the upper body A simple heating element is installed beneath the flooring Warms the lower part of both the room and the body - convects from the radiant floor surface

14 Geothermal and Hydronics Radiant floor heating with water- water heat pumps Buffer tank –control flow rates through the unit –Typically 13 litres/kW –Electric water heaters

15 Hybrid Systems Cost not justified for a GHP with uneven demands Cooling demand >> Heating demand –Cooling tower Heating demand >> Cooling demand –Boiler First cost low

16 Benefits Year round individual control Tenant metering Quiet operation Minimizes downtime –Failure affects the single zone served Low overall Life cycle cost Low operational costs Higher comfort Health and safety –eliminates the need for onsite fossil fuel combustion Low maintenance Longer service life

17 Benefits Hedge against Fuel Savings Space/Structural savings Higher comfort Reduced emissions –eliminates the need for onsite fossil fuel combustion Simpler to design Simpler to control Simpler to commission

18 Green/Sustainable design Certification programs/Incentives –Energy efficiency –Geothermal –Enhanced refrigerant management –Functionality, flexibility, maintainability –Lower operational environmental impacts USGBC - LEED BREEAM in UK VROM in Netherlands DENA in Germany, Austria and 11 Euro Nations

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20 Thank You Arun Shenoy ClimateMaster Inc


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