1INTRODUCTION high efficiency is good for economy and the environment high efficiency is in line with core business electricity industry – reducing emissions (protection environment) – conservation fuels (preservation of resources) – reducing dependence on fuel import outside EC too high efficiencies are expensive and thus uneconomic: – market advantage to less efficient (=cheaper) plants – thus not beneficiary for the environment
Energy Efficiency of power plant scope of definition (gross, net) combustion technology (installation, fuel) type of cooling ambient conditions vs. ISO conditions temperature cooling water / air
Energy Efficiency of power plant scope of definition (gross, net) combustion technology (installation, fuel) type of cooling ambient conditions vs. ISO conditions temperature cooling water / air operating load annual average vs. guaranteed performance no fixed figures that can be compared right away
2DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT reducing energy demand good principle not the task of power industry, but of spatial planners, architects etcetera not in scope BREF Energy Efficiency but in scope Directive Energy end-use efficiency and energy services framework conditions and not an over-detailed set of rules that could interfere with the development of the electricity market
3EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION Efficiency figure depends on – type of generation
3EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION Efficiency figure depends on – type of generation – condition of power plant (operation, maintenance) – ambient conditions – design of power plant ultra super critical steam boilers
3EFFICIENCY IN POWER GENERATION Efficiency figure depends on – type of generation – condition of power plant (operation, maintenance) – ambient conditions – design of power plant ultra super critical steam boilers gas turbine based power plant – higher firing temperature – supercritical steam parameters HRSG
BAT and BAT levels (coal / lignite) FuelTechniqueElectrical efficiency (net) (%) New plantsExisting plants CoalPC (DBB and WBB) 43 – 47The achievable improvement of thermal efficiency depends on the specific plant, but as an indication, a level of 30 – 40 % or an incremental improvement of more than 3 % points can be seen as associated with the use of BAT FBC>41 LignitePC (DBB)39 – 45 FBC>40
BAT and BAT levels (biomass / peat) FuelTechniqueElectrical efficiency (net) (%) BiomassGrate-firingAround 20 Spreader-stoker>23 FBC (CFBC)>28 – 30 PeatFBC (BFBC and CFBC) >28 – 30
BAT and BAT levels (gaseous fuels) Plant typeElectrical efficiency (%) New plantsExisting plants Gas turbine 36 – 4025 – 40 Gas-fired boiler 40 – 4235 – 40 CCGT Combined cycle with or without supplementary firing (HRSG) for electricity generation only 54 – 5840 – 54
4LCP AND OTHER DIRECTIVES Directive 2004/8/EC Promotion of cogeneration – powerful instrument to improve fuel utilisation
Fuel utilisation instead of efficiency thermal efficiency and electrical efficiency are apples and oranges cogeneration efficiency fuel utilisation
BAT and BAT levels (Cogeneration) Plant typeFuel utilisation(%) New and existing plants Coal 75 – 85 Depending on the specific plant application and the heat and electricity demand Lignite Biomass Peat Gas-fired boiler Combined cycle with or without supplementary firing
LCP and other directives Directive 2004/8/EC Promotion of cogeneration – powerful instrument to improve fuel utilisation – fuel utilisation dependent on long term heat demand (district heating or process heat) – in case heat delivery feasible: cogeneration can be considered as BAT
LCP and other directives Directive 2004/8/EC Promotion of cogeneration Directive 2003/87/EC Greenhouse gas emission allowance trading
Emission Trading Directive Market mechanism will result in – lower emissions – higher efficiency No definition of BAT or BAT levels for energy efficiency of LCP in BREF Energy Efficiency (Article 26)
Article 26 Emission Trading Directive …the permit shall not include an emission limit value for direct emissions of that gas unless,... …Member States may choose not to impose requirements relating to energy efficiency in respect of combustion units or other units emitting carbon dioxide on the site.
OPTIONS FOR EXTRA REGULATIONS Goal should be: public demonstration that optimal efficiency is applied Practical options: Drafting Energy Plans to optimize economically feasible options Benchmarking against "World Class Plants"
6CONCLUSIONS The efficiency of Power Plants has been improved and will be improved continuously To be demonstrated by: – Energy plans – Benchmarking No BAT or BAT levels for LCP in BREF Energy Efficiency (not in line with a liberalized market) Framework conditions and not an over-detailed set of rules real assistance licensing authorities for permitting an installation
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