Presentation on theme: "Safer More Efficient Healthier"— Presentation transcript:
1Safer More Efficient Healthier Burn it Smart!SaferMore EfficientHealthierThis is the welcome slide that reflects the three key themes that will be developed during the workshop.
2Objectives of the Workshop To help you:burn wood SAFELYburn wood more EFFICIENTLYkeep your family and community HEALTHYRead this slide
3Agenda Stoves, Fireplaces and Central Heaters The new clean burn technologiesThe ChimneySafe Wood Heat Systems BreakWood Smoke and Your HealthMaintaining Your Wood Heating SystemFirewoodHow to Burn Without SmokePlease hold questions until we get to the section you are interested in.Your question might be answered in the presentation.At the break, ask your questions of those present who are WETT certified(ask them to stand and identify themselves)
4What is a renewable energy resource? Hydro-electricSolar powerWind powerBiomass energy (wood)A renewable energy resource is one that will never run out, provided it is used wisely.The main renewable energy resources in Canada are hydro-electric, solar and wind power and biomass energy.Wood is a biomass energy resource.
5Right circle: Trees absorb CO2 when they grow and release it when they die and decompose About half the weight of wood is carbonLeft circle: When we burn wood for heat, the CO2 is returned to the atmosphereHeating with wood taps into nature’s carbon cycleGraphic courtesy ICC/RSF
6The Appliance: Stove Fireplace or Central Heater Title slide to introduce the discussion of appliances.
7Wood StovesConventional stoves are usually older and have no features to reduce smokeAdvanced technology EPA certified wood stoves burn cleanly and efficientlyRead this slide.You may wish to probe to find out how many people use advanced versus conventional stoves.This is one way to confirm that people understand what is meant by the terms.It is also a way to inform users of conventional equipment that some of their neighbours now used advanced equipment.
8Conventional Wood Stoves Left to right:Pot bellyCast box stoveCirculating stoveWelded steel “airtight”Wood cook stoveNone of these stoves can burn wood cleanly and efficiently.Emissions are from 40 to 60 grams of smoke per hour of use.Smoke can be minimized by using good fuel and burning practices
9Advanced Wood Stoves Left to right: Cast iron stove Steel enamelled stoveSteel painted stoveMore about advanced stoves later.
10Pellet stoves A clean burning option Pellets are made from sawdust that is ground, dried and compressedThese stoves can operate up to 24 hours unattendedRead this slide.Probe to see if anyone present heats with a pellet stove.If appropriate, ask them to share their experience.
11Conventional Fireplaces Conventional masonry and conventional factory-built fireplaces are not efficient and are not suitable for home heatingThey are also a source of air pollutionLeft - conventional masonry fireplaceRight - conventional factory-built fireplaceConventional fireplaces are useful only for fire viewingConventional fireplaces are not even suitable for emergency heating because they are not designed for continuous use and such use could be hazardous.
12Fireplace InsertsA fireplace insert can transform a conventional fireplace into an efficient heating system.A full chimney liner is mandatory
13High efficiency fireplaces Advanced technology fireplaces have the same combustion features as advanced wood stovesLeft: an advanced fireplaceRight: illustration showing the remote duct capabilitySome of these fireplaces can have ducts attached for heating remote rooms, and some can be used for whole-house heating.
14Masonry heatersA masonry heater is a low smoke, high efficiency heating optionIn a masonry heater, the fire is burned quickly and the heat is absorbed by tons of brick mass.The heat is slowly released to the room over the following 12 to 24 hours.Continuous fires are not maintained in masonry heaters. Each fire is built “from scratch”.
15Central HeatingMost wood furnaces and boilers are not clean burning and efficientLeft: forced air systemRight: wood boiler piped together with oil boilerCentral heating systems use hot air ducts or water pipes to distribute heat throughout the house.Ask how many people use central heating equipmentThis information may be useful later in dealing with firing technique.
16Outdoor boilersTheir large, simple fireboxes make clean burning difficult.The suggestions for good firewood preparation and firing technique can be used to reduce smoke from outdoor boilers.
17Advanced Wood Burning Technology Advanced technologies offer several advantages, including:Much higher efficiencyMuch less smoke pollutionGreater safety because less creosote is formedBurn less wood for more heatRead this slide
18Two types of advanced combustion: Catalyticuses catalyst to clean up exhaustNon-catalytic advancedmost common type in CanadaRead this slide.Describe how they work using the next two slides.
19Inside a catalytic wood stove All catalytic wood stoves have a bypass damper that is opened for reloading.The damper is closed after the stove heats up, routing the exhaust through the catalyst.Smoke passes through a catalytic honeycomb that lowers smoke ignition temperature
20Inside a ‘non-cat’ wood stove Firebox insulationReflects heat back to the fire, keeping it hotA large baffle at the top of the fireboxReflects heat back down towards the fireCreates a longer flame path for gas combustion to occurPreheated secondary combustion airDistributed around the top of the fireboxReacts with hot gases to create a clean burn1. Firebox insulation 2. A large baffle 3. Preheated combustion air
21This is what the fire in an advanced combustion wood stove looks like. The small flames at the centre top of the picture are caused by air entering the firebox through the small holes in the secondary air system as it reacts with the hot wood smoke.THE VIDEO CLIP IS NEXT!
23Compare old with new: Overall Efficiency 40 – 50% 60 – 80% Note that stacking wood against a wood stove like this is extremely hazardous.Overall Efficiency40 – 50% 60 – 80%Graphic adapted from California EPA publications
24Save up to one-thirdUsers find that they cut their wood use by up to 1/3 when they upgrade to an advanced technology stove.Probe for confirmation by any of those present who use advanced stoves.
25A clean burning furnace At least one EPA certified wood furnace is now available.If you want a central heating furnace, consider only an EPA certified model.Hopefully more advanced furnaces and boilers will be available soon.
26A cleaner burning outdoor boiler A new generation of outdoor boilers recently became available.If considering an OB, choose only one that is EPA certified.
27When you shop for a wood burning appliance: Look for one that is EPA certified.Ask your dealer to show you advanced stoves and fireplaces.In Canada, only the province of British Columbia requires wood stoves and fireplace inserts to meet emission limits.Canada is working on establishing a regulation similar to the US EPA’s.
28The Chimney Masonry Chimney Metal Chimney Title slide to introduce the subject of chimneys.You might ask how many people use each of the general types.Metal Chimney
29Why outside chimneys are a big problem: Cold air flows down them, filling the house with smoke and odours.More restriction: at least two 90° changes of direction.Creosote forms faster.The chimney parts cost more.A key slide.Ask if anyone has experienced cold backdrafts from an outside chimney.
30Inside chimneys work better because: An inside chimney stays warm and always produces some draft, even when no fire burns.An inside chimney can be located above the appliance for a straighter system and better performance.Read and discuss briefly
31The ideal: straight up! Provides stronger, more stable draft Does not cold backdraftLess creosote formationNeeds less maintenanceStraight systems produce high performance wood burningNo smoke roll-outFast startsMore convenienceSee the Guide to Residential Wood Heating booklet for more details
32Safe wood heat systemsA Guide to Residential Wood Heating has an overview of wood heat safety rules.This is a title slide introducing the safety section of the workshop.
33Codes contain reliable rules for: Floor padsSingle wall flue pipeDouble wall flue pipeAppliance clearancesClearance reduction using shieldsStoves don’t cause house fires - improper installation causes fires.
34For new or changed systems: A building permit is mandatoryThe permit will result in an inspectionInform your insurance companyA new installation or change could change your insurance policyCheck with your agent to ensure that you will be coveredReview this slide
35Dispose of ashes safely Ashes can stay hot for days and emit carbon monoxidePut ashes in a steel bucketStore the bucket outside on concrete, not on a wooden deck or near firewoodImproper storage of ashes leads to plenty of house fires
36Think Safety Smoke Detector Fire Extinguisher Carbon Monoxide Detector A smoke detector will detect ignition of combustibles or spillage from an active fireA CO detector will detect spillage from a coal bed as the fire dies outA fire extinguisher is indispensable if anything bad happensCarbonMonoxideDetector
37Contact a professional! Look for the logo.Ask retailers, installers and sweeps if they are WETT certified.CallVisitAsk those who are WETT certified to stand and identify themselves, or introduce them yourself.
38BREAKKeep the break short and warn people in advance
39The second half . . . Wood Smoke and Your Health Maintaining Your Wood Heating SystemFirewoodHow to Burn Without Smoke
40Wood smoke and your health The spicy hint of wood smoke in the air might be pleasant . . .BUTWood smoke is not healthy to breathe.Everyone should avoid breathing wood smokeEspecially children, the elderly and those with respiratory ailments.This is the title and summary slide introducing the topic of healthier wood heating.
41Why you should not breathe wood smoke: Wood smoke, like all smoke, contains a number of toxic compoundsSome are linked to increased cancer risk and other lung diseasesSome make asthma and emphysema worseThere is a clear link between breathing smoke and respiratory healthToxic gases and their health effects PM10 (inhalable particles less than 10 microns in diameter): increase in asthma, inflammation of the airway, immune system responseFormaldehyde: watery eyes, nausea, chest tightness, wheezing, may trigger asthma, cancer riskOxides of Nitrogen: shortness of breath, irritation of upper airways, lower resistance to lung infectionsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): short term: eye irritation, nausea, confusion long term: cataracts, organ damage, cancerCarbon monoxide: odourless, colourless gas - reducesblood’s ability to carry oxygenVolatile organic compounds (VOCs): low levels - fatigue, increased chest pains high levels - headaches, dizziness, death can cause respiratory irritation and illness
42How to avoid breathing wood smoke: Make sure your wood heating system is designed right and is in good shapeBurn only seasoned woodNever let the fire smoulderAvoid opening the loading door on a full fire.Learn to burn without smoke.The best design for wood heating systems is an advanced combustion appliance with a straight vertical venting systemSeasoned wood ignites easily and doesn’t smoulder - smouldering fires are the biggest cause of smoke spillage into houses.
43Consider using other heating options. If you or someone in your family has asthma, allergies or environmental sensitivities:Consider using other heating options.Be especially careful about wood smoke inside the house.Use only wood that is free of rot, mould and fungus.Bring only a small amount of wood into the house at a time.Many people suffer allergy or asthma attacks caused by the airborne spores from the moulds and funguses that come in with the firewood.There are two helpful strategies: First, avoid firewood with rot, moulds and funguses and second, bring only a small amount of firewood into the house at a time.
44Do Burn Don’t Burn Coated, painted or pressure treated wood Salt water driftwoodPlywood, particle board or any wood with glue on or in itHousehold garbageCardboard and paper productsUnseasoned woodClean, seasoned firewoodJust enough plain newspaper to get the fire startedCommercial fire starters are usually okRead this slide.Bleached, coated paper and various forms of plastic produces toxic emissions like Dioxin when burned.Burning any of the materials in the list on the left will pollute the air around your house and in your community.
45Maintaining your wood heating system Every wood burning system should be cleaned and inspected at least once each year.Some systems need much more service than this.The best approach is to service frequently until you are sure how much is needed.
46Chimney cleaning Some systems form large amounts of creosote quickly Others rarely need cleaningThe only way to know is to check oftenA system and user that produce dense smoke from the chimney can form dangerous deposits in as little as three weeks.An advanced stove connected to a straight venting system and operated with good firewood and technique may never need its chimney swept.Shiny glazed creosote is dangerous in any amount and is a sign the system is not working properly.Soft deposits should be removed when they reach 1/8” (3 mm) in thickness.Clay tilefull of creosoteBrushremovingcreosote
47Appliance maintenance Check gaskets for looseness and wearWood heating dealers carry a variety of gasket typesCheck door latches and hinges for fit and securityTime permitting, lead a discussion of appliance maintenance.Answer any questions that arise.
48Good fuel is the secret to efficiency FirewoodThis is a title slide to introduce a discussion of firewood.Good fuel is thesecret to efficiency
49A cord of firewoodA full cord measures 4 feet by 4 feet by 8 feet or 128 cu. ft.At right are three “face” cords each measuring 4’ high by 8’ long by 16” wide, or 43 cu. ft. each or combined, one full cord.How to compare prices of “face” cords that are not 16” and therefore not a third of a cord?Calculate its volume in cubic feet and compare it to the 128 cubic foot full cord.
50In early spring, the wood should be: Cut to lengthSplit to a variety of sizes, andStacked on rails to keep it off the groundJust the top covered (or not covered)Some people argue that firewood must be covered to dry properly.Others say it is not necessary.If in doubt, cover your wood.To be ready for burningin the fall
52How to tell if wood is dry There are cracks in the end grainThe wood darkens with agingA freshly split face feels warm and dryDry wood sounds hollow, wet wood sounds dullBurn some: if it hisses, it is much too wetRead this slide and discuss.
53Reasons people burn wet wood: ProcrastinationWishful Thinking
54What is the best wood to burn? All species have about the same heat energy per pound; the difference is in densityDon’t demand only high value hardwoods like maple and oak; they may be too rare to burnLower value, shorter lived species like birch and poplar make excellent firewood, but expect to pay lessIn Canada’s north people burn spruce and poplar yet manage to stay warmTime permitting, lead a discussion of firewood species used locally and their preparation and storage.
55Moisture, mould & bugsDon’t bring wet wood into the house because it can lead to serious moisture problems and promote mould growthAvoid rotted and mouldy firewood because it can cause allergic reactions and often doesn’t have much energyStressed, diseased trees attract bugs and are often used for firewood; check for bugs and always store firewood off the groundThe Canadian Food Inspection Agency says:“Stressed (weakened) trees and forests are often more susceptible to pest attack and have the highest risk for infestation. A tree can naturally become stressed through environmental factors such as fire, wind, ice, flood, drought and climate change, as well as through indigenous insect and disease damage. These trees are often used for firewood purposes. When firewood is collected from these areas the invasive pests will be again introduced into new areas and threaten our vast resource of deciduous and coniferous species.”
56Do Burn Don’t Burn Coated, painted or pressure treated wood Salt water driftwoodPlywood, particle board or any wood with glue on or in itHousehold garbageCardboard and paper productsUnseasoned woodClean, seasoned firewoodJust enough plain newspaper to get the fire startedCommercial fire starters are usually ok.Read this slide.Point out that household garbage, which contains bleached, coated and coloured paper, as well as various forms of plastic, produces toxic emissions when burned.Burning any of the materials in the list on the left will pollute the air around your house and in your community.
57Is there smoke coming from your chimney? More examples on next slide.
58Signs of poor wood burning practice See commentary on the next slide.
60How to burn without making smoke Burn hot, bright firesBefore loading, rake your coalsBurn in cyclesUse smaller loads in mild weatherLet the space cool a little before loadingFire each load hot before turning downRead this slide.This is a title and summary slide. 6 following give detail.
611. Burn hot, bright firesWood should be flaming until it is reduced to charcoalNever let a fire smoulder because smouldering wastes wood and makes a lot of smoke and creosoteRead this slide.The following tips can help to keep the wood flaming and avoid smouldering.
622. Before loading, rake your coals Remove ash frequently to provide room for loadingRake the live coals from the back to the front of the fireboxPlace wood on and behind hot coalsThe objective is to avoid smothering the hot coals, but rather to use them to ignite the new wood load quickly.Point out that raking coals to the front like this works for most stoves in which the air reaches the fire from the front through air supplies in the door, below the door or through a glass airwash system.For other stove designs, look for where the air reaches the fire and move the coals to that location so the air reaches the coals first, then the new wood load.Where the manufacturer provides specific instructions, follow those.
633. Burn in cyclesDon’t add one or two pieces an hour in an effort to produce steady heat outputWood burns best in cyclesA cycle starts when wood is placed on and behind a raked coal bedA cycle ends when the load is reduced to the same sized coal bedRead this slide and discuss the use of firing cycles.The Burning Wood Efficiently chapter of A Guide to Residential Wood Heating provides a detailed discussion of this topic.
644. Use smaller loads in mild weather In mild weather use several smaller pieces, not just fewer large piecesPut on less wood at a time than you would in cold weatherAvoid long, smouldering firesEvery fire should flame brightly until it is reduced to charcoal.To burn without smoke, you need your firewood split to a variety of sizes from 3” (75 mm) to 6” (150 mm) across.A small load, stacked crisscross and burned hot can take the chill off the space in relatively mild weather without overheating it and without causing smoke.Small loadMild weatherLarger loadCold weather
656. Fire each load hotA new load cools the firebox, so it needs to be heated up againOpen the air control fullyLet the wood burn brightly until it is charred and the edges are glowing redOnly then should you reduce the air setting, but not enough to put out the flamesThe amount of time a load needs to be fired before turning the air down depends on the size of the load and the species and moisture content of the wood.The time ranges from about 5 to 20 minutes.
665. Let the space coolIgnore the fire until you notice the room, space or house cooling offThen add the right amount of wood to suit the conditionsA small load stacked crisscross burns quickly and cleanly but will not overheat the space.A larger load placed compactly in the firebox releases its heat more slowly and will burn overnight without smouldering.
675 Ways to Control Heat Output Fuel species: softer woods for mild weatherLoad size: small load for mild weatherLoad configuration: loose, crisscross for mild weatherLoad orientation: east-west for mild weatherReduce the air supply
68Judge your progress, check your chimney! You can judge your progress towards clean burning by looking up at your chimneyA little smoke is normal just after loadingBut a fire that is burning properly produces little or no visible smoke from the chimneyCheck the chimney and judge your progress!This is the message you want everyone to take home.
69A Burn it Smart Summary: SaferGood system designLess smoke, less creosoteGet advice from a WETT proMore EfficientSmouldering wastes fuelFlaming fires release the wood’s energyAdvanced technologies are effective, convenientHealthierLess chance of smoke in your houseReduced pollution in your neighbourhoodRead slide.
70The Wood Heat Organization Inc. andthe woodpilePlease visit us!
71Thank you for attending Burn it Smart!Thank hosts, sponsors and partners and thank everyone for attending.