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IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL - IN OFFSITES AND UTILITIES INCLUDING STEAM & POWER Dr S BANIK and Mr A K VOHRA ENGINEERS INDIA LTD “WORKSHOP ON ENERGY.

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Presentation on theme: "IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL - IN OFFSITES AND UTILITIES INCLUDING STEAM & POWER Dr S BANIK and Mr A K VOHRA ENGINEERS INDIA LTD “WORKSHOP ON ENERGY."— Presentation transcript:

1 IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL - IN OFFSITES AND UTILITIES INCLUDING STEAM & POWER Dr S BANIK and Mr A K VOHRA ENGINEERS INDIA LTD “WORKSHOP ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT & EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN OIL & GAS SECTOR” 13TH NOV., 2009, DELHI

2 CONTENTS REFINING CHALLENGES UTILITIES & OFFSITE GROUP OF PLANTS
STEAM SYSTEM STEAM SYSTEM ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES POWER SYSTEM POWER SYSTEM ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES COMBINED STEAM & POWER NETWORK OPTIMIZATION HEAT RECOVERY & CHP SMR & COGEN INTEGRATION UTILITIES SAVING THROUGH REFINERY & PETROCHEMICAL INTEGRATION HYDROGEN SYSTEM & HYDROGEN CONSUMPTION OPTIMIZATION CONCLUSION

3 REFINING CHALLENGES Distillate Yield Improvements
Fuel Quality Up-gradation Optimize Energy Performance Strict Environmental Norms Maximize Margins Process High Sulfur Crudes Process High TAN/ Heavy Crudes Synergy- Refinery and Petrochemical

4 Energy Performance Challenge
REFINERY CONSUMES ABOUT 7 – 8% OF THE CRUDE PROCESSED AS FUEL REFINERIES ARE CONTINUOUSLY MAKING EFFORTS TO BRING DOWN THE ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION HAS REDUCED BY ABOUT 20% -FROM 89.0 TO 71.0 MMBTU/BBL/NRGF , OVER THE LAST 8-10 YEARS FUEL COST CONTRIBUTES 40-45% TOWARDS THE COST OF REFINERY OPERATION 30-40% OF THE FUEL COST IS ATTRIBUTED TO GENERATION OF UTILITIES LIKE STEAM / POWER FOCUS IS NOW ON ‘ UTILITIES’ CONSERVATION

5 UTILITIES & OFFSITE SYSTEM
UTILITIES AND OFFSITE GROUP OF PLANTS CONSIST OF: BOILERS STEAM TURBINE GENERATORS GAS TURBINE GENERATORS / HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT NITROGEN GENERATION UNIT COOLING TOWERS INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEM WATER TREATMENT UNITS STEAM & POWER CONSUME BULK OF THE ENERGY IN OFFSITE & UTILITIES SYSTEM

6 REFINERY STEAM SYSTEM STEAM GENERATION STEAM DISTRIBUTION END USE
STAND ALONE BOILERS HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS PROCESS WASTE HEAT BOILERS WASTE HEAT FROM SMR STEAM DISTRIBUTION RECEIVES STEAM AT DIFFERENT LEVELS FROM GENERATORS & TURBINE EXHAUST NORMALLY STEAM IS DISTRIBUTED AT 3 – 4 PRESSURE LEVELS END USE PROCESS STREAM HEATING AS A SOURCE OF WATER ( HYDROGEN GENERATION ) COMPONENT SEPARATION SHAFT WORK ( DRIVE FOR PUMPS, COMPRESSOR BLOWERS ETC. ) RECOVERY CONDENSATE RECOVERY

7 REFINERY STEAM SYSTEM – ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
STEAM GENERATION AVOID RUNNING EXTRA BOILER (ON CONSIDERATION OF RELIABILTY OF STEAM SUPPLY) LEADS TO GENERATION OF EXTRA STEAM WHICH IS FINALLY CONDENSED IN COOLRS AND CONDENSATE IS RECYCLED PROVISION OF AIR PREHEATER ON OLD BOILERS HAVING DESIGN EFFICIENCY OF ~ 85 – 86%. EFFICIENCY CAN BE IMPROVED TO +90% AVAILABILTY OF SPACE COULD BE A LIMITATION LOW EXCESS AIR BURNERS WILL REDUCE STACK LOSS AND FUEL USE OF VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES FOR EQUIPMENTS WHICH ARE RUN ON PART LOAD FOR RELIABILTY BOILER FEED-WATER PUMPS BLOWERS

8 STEAM SYSTEM – ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
IMPROVE WATER TREATMENT TO MINIMIZE BOILER BLOW DOWN RECOVER ENERGY FROM BOILER BLOW DOWN OPTIMIZE DEAERATOR VENT RATE TO MINIMIZE AVOIDABLE LOSS MAINTAIN REFRACTORY IN GOOD CONDITION TO REDUCE SURFACE LOSS

9 STEAM SYSTEM – ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
IMPROVE STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AVOID STEAM LEAKS AND REPAIR DAMAGED INSULATION IMPLEMENT EFFECTIVE STEAM TRAP SURVEY & MAINTENANCE PROGRAM LEAKING TRAPS SHOULD NOT EXCEED 5% OF THE TRAPS FAULTY TRAP WITH 1/8 INCH ORIFICE INSTALLED ON 6.5 KG/CM2G LINE MAY CAUSE STEAM LOSS OF 300 TPA RECOMMENDED STEAM TRAP SURVEY UTILIZE BACKPRESSURE TURBINE INSTEAD OF PRVs STEAM LINE PRESSURE, KG/CM2G TRAP TESTING FREQ. 10.0 KG/CM2G AND ABOVE WEEKLY TO MONTHLY 2.0 TO KG/CM2G MONTHLY TO QUARTERLY < 2.0 KG/CM2G ANNUALLY

10 STEAM SYSTEM – ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES
END USE IMPROVEMENTS REQUIRES CASE BY CASE ASSESSMENT RUNNING SINGLE TURBINE DRIVEN PUMP / BLOWER TWO TURBINE DRIVEN 495 KW AIR BLOWERS WERE RUN IN SRU UNIT INSTEAD OF ONE AT PART LOAD OF 250 KW . OPTIMIZATION OF STRIPPING STEAM MINIMIZE DEAERATOR VENT STEAM CONDENSATE RECOVERY SYSTEM LOAD, KW STEAM R ATE, KG/KW-HR STEAM CONSUMPTION, TPH LOSS, TPH 495 48.8 24.0 250 63.08 15.0 6.0

11 POWER SYSTEMS CO-GENERATION OR COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANTS ARE WIDELY EMPLOYED FOR PRODUCTION OF POWER & HEAT ( STEAM ) IN REFINERIES AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS 30% PLUS MORE EFFICIENT THAN SEPARATE PRODUCTION EQUIPMENTS WITH VARYING POWER TO HEAT RATIO ARE AVAILABLE Cogeneration System Heat – to – power ratio ( KWth/KWe ) Power Output ( as% of fuel input ) Overall Efficiency, % Back Pressure Turbine 4.0 – 14.3 Extraction Condensing Steam Turbine 2.0 – 10.0 Gas Turbine 1.0 – 2.0 Combined Cycle 1.0 – 1.7 34 -40

12 POWER GENERATION GAS TURBINES GENERATORS
A PREFERRED CHOICE OVER STEAM TURBINE BASED POWER GENRATING SYSTEMS LOWER CAPITAL COST MODULAR DESIGN – SHORTER INSTALLATION TIME QUICK TO START HIGH EFFICIENCY LOWER EMISSIONS USED IN COMBINATION WITH HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR (HRSG) STEAM PRODUCED IN HRSG CAN BE USED TO MEET SITE HEATING REQUIREMENT OF FOR POWER GENERATION THROUGH STG

13 POWER SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
COOLING OF INLET AIR LOW COST AND LOW PAYBACK PERIOD EASY TO INSTALL CHANGES ARE EXTERNAL TO GAS TURBINE OVER 700 WORLDWIDE INSTALLATIONS SUCH A SYSTEM IS WORKING SATISFACTORILY IN A MEGA REFINERY IN THE COUNTRY METHODOLOGY COMMONLY APPLIED EVAPORATIVE FOGGING / WET COMPRESSION DROPLET SIZE MICRONS, VERY HIGH PRESSURE PUMP : 100 – 150 BAR CHILLERS MECHANICAL / ABSORPTION LOW LEVEL RECOVERED HEAT CAN BE GAINFULLY UTILIZED OFFERS BETTER CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE APPROX. 3 TIMES COSTLY THAN FOGGING SYSTEM

14 Efficient Heat Recovery-Gas Turbine Exhaust

15 Refinery With HRU/HRSG

16 Impact of HRU/HRSG On EII

17 COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

18 COMBINED HEAT & POWER NETWORK
POWER GENERATION GAS TURBINE GENERATOR STEAM TURBINE GENERATOR POWER DEMAND IS LINKED TO PLANT THROUGHPUT AND AFFECTS STEAM GENERATION STEAM GENERATION UTILITIES BOILERS ( GENERATION LINKED TO PLANT THROUGHPUT AND POWER OUTPUT FROM STG / GTG) HRSG ( STEAM GENERATION LINKED TO POWER OUTPUT ) WASTE HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATION AT 2 TO 3 PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE LEVELS GNERATION LINKED TO PLANT LOAD AND FEED QUALITY HIGH H2S CONTENT IN ACID GAS WILL GENERATE MORE STEAM IN WHB PRDS FOR MAINTAING STEAM PRESSURE AT DIFFERENT LEVELS STEAM CONSUMPTION 3 TO 4 PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE LEVELS BPT WITH INLET STEAM AND EXHAUST STEAM AT 2 OR MORE PRESSURE LEVELS

19 COMBINED HEAT & POWER NETWORK
CONDENSATE RECOVERY SYSTEM CONDENSATE FLASH DRUMS OPEATING AT VARIOUS PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE LEVEL VENT STEAM CONDENSER AFFECTS DM WATER REQUIREMENT PROVIDES HEAT FOR HEATING DM WATER GOING TO DEAERATOR DE-AERATOR STEAM CONSUMPTION LINKED TO BFW REQUIREMENT AND ITS TEMPERATURE HEAT AND POWER NETWORK OF A REFINERY IS COMPLEX STEAM AND POWER GENERATION AND CONSUMPTION ARE INTELINKED NETWORK MODELING / SIMULATION PROGRAM SHALL BE USEFULL IN OPTIMIZING THE STEAM AND POWER GENERATION TO MINIMIZE FUEL COST MODELS ARE SITE SPECIFIC AND ARE DEVELOPED FROM THE OPERATING DATA USING NON-LINEAR REGRESSION METHODS

20 COMBINED HEAT & POWER SYSTEM MODELING/OPTIMIZATION
SIMULATION PROGRAM MULTIVARIABLE EQUATION -SETS FOR MASS & ENERGY BALANCE FOR EACH SUBSYSTEM ARE DEVELOPED MODEL INPUTS GAS TURBINE : AMBIENT AIR TEMP., POWER OUT PUT, HEAT RATE, FUEL CONSUMPTION BOILERS : STEAM GENERATION AND FUEL CONSUMPTION HRSG : FUEL CONSUMED IN GTG, AMBIENT AIR TEMP. STEAM TURBINES : STEAM RATE CURVES, STEAM FLOW DATA EQUATIONS ARE SOLVED USING A SOLVER SUPPORTED ON EXCEL SOLVER USES A NON-LINEAR OPTIMIZATION PROGRAM PROGRAM PROVIDES TOTAL QUANTITY AND COST OF BOTH POWER AND STEAM UTILITIES.

21 CHP SYSTEM MODELING CHP SUB-SYSTEMS BOILER CGTG STG HRSG SMR HRU PRDS
DEAERATOR CONDENSATE & BFW SYSTEM

22 SMR COGEN INTEGRATION

23 CHP COGEN INTEGRATION

24 SMR COGEN INTEGRATION

25 Typical CHP SYSTEM MODELING
BOILER MODEL ANNUAL FUEL / STEAM GENERATION DATA OF EACH BOILER IS PLOTTED AND NON LINEAR EQUATIONS ARE OBTAINED F = A+ B.S+ C.S2 F : FUEL CONSUMPTION S : STEAM PRODUCED FROM BOILER A,B & C ARE CONSTANTS CALCULATED FROM THE OPERATING DATA LOWER AND UPPER LIMITS OF STEAM GENERATION CAN BE PROVIDED IN THE MODEL MODEL PROVIDE ADDITIONAL STEAM GENERATION LOAD ON BOILER HAVING HIGER EFFICIENCY SIMILAR MODEL FOR HRSG IS DEVELOPED

26 COMBINED HEAT & POWER SYSTEM MODELING
GAS TURBINE MODEL HEAT RATE CURVE ANNUAL POWER / FUEL CONSUMPTION DATA OF EACH TURBINE AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE F = A+ B.P+ C.P2+ D.T+ E.T2 F : FUEL CONSUMPTION P : POWER , T : AMBIENT AIR TEMP A,B,C,D & E ARE CONSTANTS CALCULATED FROM THE OPERATING DATA SIMILAR MODEL FOR STEAM TURBINE IS DEVELOPED

27 TYPICAL STEAM NETWORK ENERGY AUDIT

28 SAMPLE STEAM NETWORK ENERGY AUDIT

29 CHP MODEL ENERGY AUDIT

30 CHP NETWORK SIMULATION / OPTIMIZATION
APPLICATION OF SIMULATION PROGRAM ESTABLISH OPTIMAL GENERATION / PURCHASE / EXPORT OF POWER AND STEAM SO AS TO MINIMIZE THE SITE FUEL / UTILITIES COST EVALUATE ENERGY CONSERVATION SCHEMES FROM GLOBAL ( PLANT ) PERSPECTIVE EVALUATE STRATEGIES FOR POWER / STEAM GENERATION CAPACITY EXPANSION FOR NEW REQUIREMENTS

31 ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT STUDIES AT SAUDI ARAMCO GAS PLANT
GAS PLANT CAPACITY : 2600 MMSCFD GAS SWEETENING UNIT GAS DEHYDRATION UNIT NGL RCOVERY ( LOW TEMP. ) SRU COMPRESSOR STATION FOR GAS PIPELINE ENERGY CONSERVATION SCHEMES IDENTIFIED ENHANCED PROCESS TO PROCESS COLD EXCHANGE PROVISION OF LEAN / RICH AMINE EXCHANGER POWER GENERATION FROM HYDRAULIC TURBINE IN DGA UNIT OBSG ON HEATERS VARIAABLE SPEED DRIVES FOR PUMPS & AIR COOLERS ENERGY SAVED POWER : 21 MW STEAM GENERATION : 416 MLBH FUEL SAVING : 100MSCFH ENERGY SAVING SCHEMES HAD GOOD PAYBACK PERIOD CHP ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT BANEFITS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION CAN BE ACHIEVED IF POWER IS GENERATED FROM THE STEAM GENERATED IN THE ENCON SCHEME AND EXPORTED

32 REFINERY-PETROCHEMICAL INTEGRATION(Typical)

33 REFINERY-PETROCHEMICAL INTEGRATION
VALUE Chain Integration of Refinery Products to Petrochemical Feed Sharing and Efficient Use of Utilities Sharing of Offsites and Infrastructure Sharing of All Plant Resources Including Human Resources Overall Reduction in CAPEX and OPEX

34 Refinery/Petrochem –Offsite/Infrastructure Integration
Integrated Common Facilities Achieving Economies of Scale for: Flare Waste Water Treating Buildings Control Room Laboratory

35 Refinery/Petrochemicals- Utilities Integration and Energy Efficiency
Steam System: Excess MP/LP Steam from Cracker to the Refinery for Overall Steam System Efficiency Excess Hydrogen from Petrochemical to Refinery Integrated Common Facilities Achieving Economies of Scale for: Cooling Water Air Nitrogen Fire Water Fuel

36 Hydrogen System

37 HYDROGEN GENERATION PROCESS SCHEMES

38 MODEL BASED ASSESSMENT

39 H2 Network Optimization
H2 internal optimization Optimized performance of the new on-purpose H2 facility, while best satisfying the refinery-wide utilities and operational requirements, especially in terms of reliability and flexibility. Degree of ROG utilization, H2 recovery and multiple feed flexibility Reforming severity Minimization of involuntary HP steam export Level of CO2 capture

40 Hydrogen Network Optimization
H2 external optimization Developing of H2 balance model Identification of limitations and/or flexibility of the H2 usage H2 network LP modelling or H2 off-line analysis Identification of the key inefficiency of the H2 network Integration of possible alternatives for H2 re-use and regeneration Identification of the optimum size for a new “on-purpose” H2 generation Unit

41 Hydrogen Network Optimization
Refinery-wide parameters Crude evaluation/substitution Overall refinery scheme and unit operation interactions Residue upgrading options assessment Fuel substitution Carbon separation/sequestration solutions Utilities LP modelling CO2 LP modelling

42 Typical Refinery Hydrogen Network

43 HYDROGEN GENERATION-Saving in Utility
Optimization of Hydrogen Usage Technology Up-gradation Feed + Fuel ( NG case) is 7% lower for PSA based Plant Fuel Required is 37% lower for PSA based plant Switching to Lower Mol Wt Hydrocarbon saves utility Benefits of Switching of Feed from Naphtha to Pentane Pre-desulphurisation is omitted Steam Flow at Mixing point Reduced by 12% Fuel Requirement Reduced by 14.2% H2 Yield Increased by 1 % CO2 Emissions Reduced By 1.5%

44 CONCLUSIONS OFFSITES AND UTILITIES CONSUME ABOUT 40 % OF ENERGY
STEAM, POWER ARE MAJOR UTILITIES CONSIDERED SCOPE FOR REDUCTION IN ENERGY CONSUMPTIO IDENTIFIED INTEGRATION OF REFINERY/PETROCHEMICAL PLANT SAVES COST AND ENERGY HYDROGEN SYSTEM MANAGEMENT CAN HELP TO IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITY FOR UTILITY SAVINGS

45 Thank You 18 4 4


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