Ideal Pork Quality Color – Reddish-pink Drip Loss – < 0.5% Ultimate pH – 5.6 - 6.2 Marbling – Equivalent to 2.5 - 4% intramuscular fat
Genetics Nutrition On-Farm Handling Transportation Pre-Slaughter Handling Carcass Handling Stunning Lean Quality May Be Influenced By :
Pork Carcass Measurements Backfat Measurements: Last Lumbar Vert. Last Rib 1st Rib Carcass Length: Anterior Edge of First Rib to Anterior Edge of Aitch Bone
USDA Pork Carcass Grades Expected Yield of the Four Lean Cuts By Grade, Based on Percentages of Chilled Carcass Weight U.S. No. 160.4% and Over U.S. No. 257.4 to 60.3% U.S. No. 354.4 to 57.3% U.S. No. 4Less than 54.4% U.S. Utility USDA Yield Grade Equation: (4 x Last Rib Fat Measurement) – Muscling Score NOT commonly applied in commercial operations
Percent Lean (Ribbed Carcasses) Hot carcass weight Fat depth at the tenth rib Loin eye area at the tenth rib Most accurate, but NOT commonly applied in commercial operations because most carcasses are not ribbed
Pounds of Fat Free Lean = 8.5876–(21.8957 x 10th rib fat, in) +(3.0047 X LEA, in. 2 ) +(.4650 x HCWT, lbs.) Percentage Fat Free lean = (Pounds of Fat Free Lean/ Hot Carc. Wt.)x100 Fat Free Lean Equation
Typical values: 48-60% – Extremely lean pigs >60% As live or carcass weight increases, what happens to fat? – With heavy-weight hogs, FRAME is very important Percentage Fat Free lean
Hog Procurement Live Cash (Spot) Market – Auction – Delivery to Packing Plant – Hog Buying Station Few Hogs Traded on Live Cash Market – 62% in 1994 – 17% in 2001 – 9% in 2007
Hogs Sold on Carcass Basis Versus Live Cash Source: Lawrence, John and Glenn Grimes. Production and Marketing Characteristics of U.S. Pork Producers, 2006, Market hogs sold on a carcass basis (%) Operation size/ 1,000 hd. mktd.20002006 1-36380 3-58091 5-108090 10-507792 50-5009798 500+99100
Marketing and Production Contracts – Specifies time and quantity of hogs to be delivered Production Contract - Contractor supplies hogs Marketing Contract - Types, numbers, pricing formula are normally specified Hog Procurement
Carcass Weight Pricing Dress-Off Items Head, Viscera, Pluck, Hair, Blood, etc. 65 lbs. 250 lbs. 185 lbs. 74% 26% Producer Paid on a Carcass Weight Basis Dressing Percentage Is The Most Important Factor!
Carcass Pricing Carcass pricing is heavily affected by dressing percentage – Dressing percentage is affected by: Amount of fill Amount of fat Amount of muscle Amount of carcass trimming Producer is not paid if carcass is condemned
Lean Value or Carcass Merit Pricing Differential pricing by carcass, based on the estimated lean merit of each individual carcass Lean Merit estimation is completed by a variety of methods, but usually takes the form of a prediction equation using on-line measurements to estimate total lean. A base carcass price is established and adjusted according to the results obtained by the prediction equation The majority of lean value pricing formulas do not currently include estimates of quality. Lean Value Pricing
Lean Value Pricing On-Line Methods and Measurements Ruler
Lean Value Pricing On-Line Methods and Measurements Invasive Optical Probe (Fat-O-Meater, Hennessy Grading Probe)
Lean Value Pricing On-Line Methods and Measurements Ultrasound – Hanging Carcass (Animal Ultrasound Systems CVT, UltraFom)
Lean Value Pricing On-Line Methods and Measurements Ultrasound – Entire Carcass (AutoFom)
Lean Value Pricing On-Line Methods and Measurements MRI – Entire Carcass or Primals (TOBEC)
Lean Value Pricing Merit Estimations Typically Percent Lean or Percent Wholesale Cuts derived from a formula (regression equation) Merit = 55.234 - (.4 x Fat Depth) + (6.2 x Muscle Depth) Calculated for each individual carcass (not an average)
Lean Value Pricing Caution!! Equations are only as good as the data used in deriving the equation – They are an estimate (based on data), not absolute – Typically varies due to differences in weight, genetic type, etc.
Lean Value Pricing Carcass merit estimates do differ from plant to plant – Different equipment, different data collected, human to human differences, etc. – Each processor develops their buying program (grid) to meet their product needs. – It is the producer/sellers challenge to match the right hogs with the right carcass merit program to maximize value.
Lean Value Pricing Each carcass is priced individually Different Plant Examples: PRICE = Base Price + Value Premium - Deductions PRICE = (Base Price x Relative Value) - Deductions
Lean Value Pricing Base Price Does Differ From Plant to Plant – Each packer/plant sets it own base – Base can differ from supplier to supplier, based on market forces and past history Base Price Negotiated From: – Publicly reported cash or spot market trades – Futures market price – Publicly reported feed price – Plant averages
Lean Value Pricing
Grid carcass weight and leanness adjustments may be applied: – Fixed premiums (known dollar amount) – Relative premiums (percent adjustment) Carcasses are not typically USDA (third party) graded – Packer employee measures Objective measures –Fat-O-Meater, ruler, ultra-sound, etc.
Example Program 1 Begin with a negotiated base price and adjust according to the grid below:
Example Program 1 Begin with a negotiated base price and adjust according to the grid below: Carcass Price = $85/cwt x 1.08 = $91.80/cwt. 200 lbs. X $91.80/cwt = $183.60 Total Value Example: Base Price = $50/cwt., Carcass Wt. = 200 lbs., LR Fat =.90 in.
Example Program 2 Begin with a negotiated base price and adjust according to the grid below:
Example Program 2 Begin with a negotiated base price and adjust according to the grid below: Example: Base Price = $85/cwt., Carcass Wt. = 200 lbs., 10thR Fat =.90 in., LEA = 7.00 in 2, %Fat-Free Lean = 51.5%. Carcass Price = ($85/cwt + $0.00) + $1.50 = $86.50/cwt. 200 lbs. X $86.50/cwt = $173.00 Total Value
Fat-O-Meater % Lean Premium/Disc ount Carcass Wt. Premium/Disc ount 59%$7.25<124($32.06) 57-58%$5.75124-130($19.84) 55-56%$4.75131-137($10.68) 53-54%$3.75138-143($4.58) 51-53%$2.50144-150($1.52) 49-50%$1.25151-157Base 47-48%Base158-163Base 45-46%($1.25)164-170Base 43-44%($2.50)171-177Base 41-42%($3.75)178-183Base 39-40%($4.75)184-190($0.76) 37-38%($5.75)191-196($2.29) 35-36%($7.25)197-203($3.81) 204-210($6.87) Example Program 3 Begin with a negotiated base price and adjust according to the grid below:
Base Price =$85.00/cwt FOM Adj.+ $2.50/cwt Carc. Wt. Adj.– $3.81/cwt Carcass Price =$83.69/cwt Total Value =$83.69/cwt X 200 lbs. $167.38 Fat-O-Meater % Lean Premium/Disc ount Carcass Wt. Premium/Disc ount 59%$7.25<124($32.06) 57-58%$5.75124-130($19.84) 55-56%$4.75131-137($10.68) 53-54%$3.75138-143($4.58) 51-53%$2.50144-150($1.52) 49-50%$1.25151-157Base 47-48%Base158-163Base 45-46%($1.25)164-170Base 43-44%($2.50)171-177Base 41-42%($3.75)178-183Base 39-40%($4.75)184-190($0.76) 37-38%($5.75)191-196($2.29) 35-36%($7.25)197-203($3.81) 204-210($6.87) Example: Base Price = $85/cwt., Carcass Wt. = 200 lbs., 10thR Fat =.90 in., LEA = 7.00 in 2, %Fat-Free Lean = 51.5%. Example Program 3 Begin with a negotiated base price and adjust according to the grid below:
Selling On: Live weight – One average price for all live pounds – Negotiated price before delivery – Weighing conditions important – Mud, shrink (fill, time, stress) – Was most common for hogs Lean Value Pricing Summary
Selling On: Carcass weight – One average price for all carcass pounds – Negotiated price before delivery – Dressing percent (also called yield) is extremely important! – Producer stands risk of trimming and condemnation losses Lean Value Pricing Summary
Selling On: Lean Value Pricing (Grid Marketing) – Each carcass evaluated and priced independently by the packer (not third party) – Producer stands grading risk – Base price may be negotiated or come from packer-generated formula – Premiums and discounts typically determined ahead of delivery – Different buyers have different systems – Most market hogs are sold by some variation of this method today Lean Value Pricing Summary
Lean Value Pricing differentiates carcass merit and the producer is paid its worth to the packer. Producers must determine how best to capture relative value of the pigs produced by matching them with the most profitable pricing program (limitations due to transportation costs or other variables may also influence marketing decisions). Lean Value Pricing Summary