Presentation on theme: "Automation and Control System"— Presentation transcript:
1Automation and Control System purposeCollect and process information,Execute control actions automatically or as decision support system.locationCabling and workstations through all ship. Computers in the engine room, heavy duty local control terminals also in engine rooms.main componentsComputers and work stations. Electric and optical cables with routers. design problemsExpensive system, cabling and testing time consuming. Subsystem compatibility problems. Rapid development brings unmature solutions. Finding safe and remote location for cables and routers.operation problemsMany software related problems. Updating management is critical. Operator skills need constant improvement and better operator interfaces. Systems influence on ship safety.
2Main Switchboard and Starter boards purposeMain switchboard is backbone of electric system, including control and monitoring functions. Starter boards control large electric motors.locationMain switchboard close to generators in control room (or adjacent space). Due to safety reasons often divided and placed in two switchboard rooms. Other switchboards seldom in engine room. Centralised starter boards in control room or engine room.main componentsMain switchboarddesign problemsMain switchboard length, up to 14 meter. Big cables & high ventilation demand increase space problems.Emergency conditions -arching, short circuits.operation problemsSeldom systematic problems.
3Main Switchboard and Starter boards Main switchboard in large ferry engine control room
4Emergency Generator and Switchboard purposeTo supply and distribute electric for vital consumers when power plant is not available. Capacity and operation regulated by Class and SOLASmain componentsEmergency diesel generator with automatic start located above main deck. Access from open deck, self-contained plant.Emergency cells located above main deck. Supply power after main voltage loss, until emergency generator operates.Sufficient alone in some small cargo ships.Emergency switchboard, located near the power source. Sections:400V ES1 feeds fire pump, bilge pump, steering gear and other emergency consumers240V ES2 feeds navigation instruments, fed by ES1240V ES3 feeds alarm system, emergency & navigation lights, fed by ES2 or cellsoperation problemsStarting failures of emergency generator / emergency fire pump
5Main Switchboard and Starter boards Main switchboard for 2 generator ship - total length 9 meterStarters & Shore GEN GEN Shore Starters & V Section Feeders Supply P Supply SB FeedersTo Emerg. board Bustie To 220V SectionNormal cubicle height is Free 300 mm space above and 400 mm below the floor plates required. Cubicle breadth is 600 or 800 mmAdd 1 cubicle for each generator. 2 cubicle if main switchboard is divided in halves. 3 …4 cubicles and transition piece if halves installed in separate rooms.Medium voltage (>1 kV) switchboard is abt. 20 % longer. Cubicles 800 or 1000 mmSeparate starter boards: cubicle (600 mm) for … 3 motors.
6Generator and Switchboard Location Emergency diesel generator and switchboardCargo Main Transformers Automation control room switchboard boardMain Control Cargo pump Desk converters
7Generator and Switchboard Location 3 diesel generators on level 9000 mmShaft generator
8Generator and Switchboard Location Overhaul of a 1600 kVA shaft generator after bearing failureVulkan RaTo-type shaft generator coupling
9Steam and Feed water System purposeGenerate and convey thermal energy to consumersWater steam is practical. Alternatives are thermal oil and (for MDO ships only) hot waterlocationMain components often in main engine room instead of dedicated spaces. Insulated pipes are lead to consumers through all ship.main componentsNormally two oil fired boilers and exhaust gas boiler for each main engine. Water tanks and pump assembliesdesign problemsHigh capacity boilers and exhaust gas boilers (including overhaul space) cause space problems in passenger ships.Pumps location on low level can also be difficultoperation problemsFeed water related problemsExhaust gas boiler fouling and soot fires
10Typical Steam and Feed Water System Mixing does not allow too cold water in boilerGas outlet temperature 180oCSteam to consumersPreheating sectionEvaporation sectionSW cooled dumping condenser to handle excess steamOil fire boiler (auxiliary boiler)Circulation pumpsCondensate tank Feed water tankReturn from consumersCooling coilFeed water pumps
11Steam and Feed Water System Capacity Most ships never use all oil fired boiler capacity. Large boilers in crude oil / black products tankers. Exhaust gas boilers operate dry, use dumping condenser or by-pass.Calculate for each consumer group, see table kg steam = 2260 MJ
12Oil Fired Boiler Dimensions Steam collecting spaceFinned water tubes inside the some tubesFurnaceBrickwork
13Steam Boiler and Feed Water Pump Location Oil fired boilers Exhaust gas boiler Surplus steam Feed water condenser pumpsFeed water tank
14Fire ProtectionTo activate fire alarm and permit early and efficient fire extinguishing.Ship divided in machinery spaces, cargo space, accommodation (each with multiple fire zones).Fire water system required in all ships. Needed also for cooling of structures. Number and capacity of pumps according to rules. Secondary system is always required.Carbon dioxide: all fires, efficient in enclosed space, lethal, testing difficultWater fog: newcomer, all fires, non-toxic, complicated plant, testing easyHalon: efficient, mildly toxic, banned due to ozone layer depleting effectFoam: various foams for various purposes, difficult after cleaning(Powder)Total flooding (Space) extinguishers Local extinguishersLocal compulsory in existing pax vessel by October 2005Manual release Automatic release
15Fresh water systems purpose location main components design problems To distillate fresh water from brine utilising waste heat. When waste heat is not sufficient, steam from oil fired boilers is used.To filter and treat water for safe utilisation as technical or potable water.To store pressurised hot and cold water for consumers.locationLarge multistage units with sea water pumps located in dedicated rooms. Water tanks distributed in various compartments.Cargo ships the small evaporators and hydrophores in main engine room.main componentsMultistage units & water tanks in cruise liners. Otherwise small components. Reverse osmosis units: small, demand high pumping power, 300 ppm salt.design problemsLarge evaporator size and high energy consumption.More stages mean low heat consumption but increase cost and dimensions.operation problemsEvaporator maintenance, bacteria contamination would be disaster.
16Multistage evaporator Fresh water system Fresh water systemsMultistage evaporator Fresh water systemLand connections Port and SbTechnical waterFilter HydrophoreUV unitEvaporatorMineralisationChlorinationDimensionsTransfer pumpStorage tanksNote that single stage units require double length space for openingHot Heater Cold water water
17Overhaul space Service space Important overhaul items must be provided Main and aux. engine pistonTurbocharger rotorCharge air cooler insertsMain and big end bearingsClutch and coupling elementsGenerator rotorsPropeller and intermediate shaftsExhaust gas boiler insertsLarge sea water pumpsFeed water pumpsPipe systems, especially HFO, SWService spacemust be providedCentrifuge purifiersFuel injectorsFuel oil booster unitSea water filtersPiping accessoriesMake sure that floor plate and platforms are reinforced for heavy items!
18Material transport routes Material transport to workshop and storagesMain engine large spare partsAuxiliary engine pistonLarge valvesScrew pumpsPump impellersToolsTransport to/from landMain engine large spare partsLarge pumpsPipe, bar and plate materialGenerator rotorPropeller and intermediate shaft (holes cut in bulkhead may be accepted but no any major component dismantling)Make sure that floor plate and platforms are reinforced for heavy items!
19Overhaul and Material Transport Traverse crane above main engine(Port) Heavy main engine spare parts securedEngine Engineer store workshopService lift and hatch on main deckLift rail above each genset, leading to ME traverse crane reach areaAft thruster motor and shaft generator rotor (Port) overhaul is foreseen