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ALSTOM AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND Bernard Hayes Country Sale Director.

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Presentation on theme: "ALSTOM AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND Bernard Hayes Country Sale Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 ALSTOM AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND Bernard Hayes Country Sale Director

2 Agenda Alstom Today The CO2 Challenge Alstom’s CO2 Strategy
CO2 – Future Directions - 01/04/ P 2 2

3 ALSTOM - Core competencies
Power Systems 25% of the World’s installed capacity Power Service Rail Transport World Rail Speed Record ALSTOM’s core competencies are in Power and Transport ( slide 2 ) - 01/04/ P 3 3

4 ALSTOM today Sales A$ 27.48 bn Orders A$ 38 bn
Order backlog A$ bn Employees 76,000 Presence 70 countries Market Capitalisation ~ A$ 38 bn Listed on Paris Stock Exchange ALSTOM today is a thriving business ( slide 3 ) with growing orders, Technologies and reputation world wide. FY 2006/7 - 01/04/ P 4

5 Innovative Technologies in Alstom
Innovation – a top priority Increasing R&D expense to A$900 million (+ 21%) in 2007/08 Technical leadership evident in major programmes: Power: 7 partnerships for 8 pilot plants for CO2 capture (USA, Canada, Germany, France, Norway, Sweden) Transport: AGV, new Citadis tram, signalling Notes - 01/04/ P 5

6 The Environment is at the core of our business
The Environment is the main driver for Alstom Clean Power challenge Environmental benefits of rail transport - 01/04/ P 6

7 ALSTOM - coverage across Australia & NZ
Brisbane SIGMA Energy Solutions Power Service Office Sales Office Perth Maitland Sales office Power Service Office Projects Office Workshop for rotating plant Satellite for GTs, Hydro, Site Services, Leak seal Orders AUD $1.1bn Employees Approx Sydney Head Office Engineering, Sales Melbourne Sales Office Transport Office Satellite for all field services Hobart Power Service Workshop Sales Office Hamilton, NZ Power Service Office Sales Office - 01/04/ P 7

8 POWER - Present in All Major PowerGen Fuel Markets
Technologies adapted to all major energy sources Gas Coal Hydro Nuclear (conventional part) Wind

9 Product portfolio compared with competition
Alstom has the most extensive product offering Product portfolio compared with competition Products Nuclear/ Conv. Island Large GT Large ST Gene- rators Renewable Boilers HRSG HEX ECS Plant Hydro Wind Players Alstom Comp. 1 Comp. 2 Comp. 3 Strong presence Medium presence No presence - 01/04/ P 9

10 The largest portfolio for integrated power solutions
Gas Turbines MW Steam Turbines MW Hydro Turbines 5MW - 750MW Wind Turbines kW - 3MW Generators MW MW CFB Boilers 50MW - 600MW Sub Critical Boilers 120MW - 750MW Super Critical Boilers MW MW HRSG’s (covering complete GT range) Environmental Control PM, Nox, Sox, Hg Control Systems For all plant types - 01/04/ P 10

11 Alstom - The Plant Integrator
Optimise the whole power plant Large GT ST Boilers Gene- rators HRSG/ HEX ECS Plant Turnkey/EPC Component suppliers Architect Engineers (A/E) Comp. 1 Comp. 2 Comp. 3 Alstom - 01/04/ P 11

12 Power Service - Powering Performance
Proactive management Customers Full service Added value service Spare parts, maintenance Diagnostics and monitoring, upgrades, refurbishments Spare parts, maintenance and technical support Integrated maintenance, service contracts, O&M New Plants Business equally supported by our Service Business (slide 5) - 01/04/ P 12

13 Agenda Alstom Today The CO2 Challenge Alstom’s CO2 Strategy
CO2 – Future Directions - 01/04/ P 13 13

14 ALSTOM’s Position on CO2
Alstom is a technology company in PowerGen and Transport, not a atmospheric scientific research organisation Accept as scientifically measured fact that atmospheric CO2 concentrations & global atmospheric temperatures have risen over recent decades Acknowledges that IPCC has recognised link between anthropogenic CO2 and earth surface temperature is unequivocal Acknowledges that Governments are establishing policy setting to counteract manmade CO2 in response Consequently Alstom is developing technological solutions to allow our customers to meet new Govt policy settings - 01/04/ P 14

15 CO2 Intensity and Temperature
CO2 Rise IPCC Temperature projections Current atmospheric CO2 concentration 380 ppm, highest ever…

16 Total worldwide CO2 Reduction Requirements – IPCC Targets
Greenhouse gas emissions and required reductions to stabilize concentrations (IEA) Business as usual - 35/40% - 45/50% Gt CO2/Year 550ppm 450ppm IPCC now estimates the target CO2 concentration to limit world temperature increase to 2°C is between 350 and ppm “Business as Usual” emissions correspond to a 1.5% to 1.8% annual growth rate of GHG emissions between 2002 and 2030 Reducing to 550 ppm would require 0% annual growth rate between 2002 and 2030 Reducing to 450 ppm would require -0.6% annual growth between 2002 and 2030 The IPCC rd Assessment Report estimated 450 ppm as the target to limit long term temperature increase to +2°C In 2005, the IPCC Expert Meeting on Emission Scenarios estimated the target for +2°C at “maximum concentration below 450 ppm” The May 2007 IPCC Summary for Policymakers estimated the target “between 350 and 450 ppm” The lower line for “Business as Usual” is the IEA Reference Scenario for all sectors, used by Vattenfall The higher line for “Business as Usual” is with Alstom assumptions on power sector emissions, which are higher than the IEA Reference Scenario estimates

17 Abatements Required to Meet IPCC Target for 2030
Power Industry will need a 7.7 GT CO2-e pa reduction by 2030 incl 4.7 GT CO2-e pa from Carbon Capture and Storage to meet 500 ppm

18 Projected Power Industry Growth to 2030
China & Aisa the Major Growth Areas Coal will still the major fuel source in 2030

19 Power Gen Emissions Growth to 2030 without CCS
Emissions from Coal (esp in China) Driving Emissions Growth China Driving Emissions Growth No Chance for Power Gen to meet IPCC CO2 Targets without CCS and Involvement of China

20 Meeting IPCC‘s 450 ppm CO2 Tragets for 2030
The Challenges for Power Gen to meet IPCC Target: Implementing Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Adoption of CCS into China

21 Agenda Alstom Today The CO2 Challenge Alstom’s CO2 Strategy
CO2 – Future Directions - 01/04/ P 21 21

22 ALSTOM’s CO2 Strategy for Fossil Fuel Power Generation
The 4 Pillars of Alstom’s Fight against CO2 Increased efficiency of the installed base Highest efficiencies for new coal and gas plants CO2 capture ready for new power plant CO2 capture solutions to retrofit to the installed base and for new plants - 01/04/ P 22

23 1& 2. INCREASED EFFICIENCY From service to retrofit and new plants…
Existing power plant New power plant Owner: A. Schimkat/M. Lord MRL: graph updated with Emissions factors from the installed base (coal and gas): major issue is to deal with ageing installed base. Emissions that are not produced don’t have to be captured. Applying Alstom technologies to the installed base has the potential to deliver significant reductions in emissions whilst boosting plant efficiency, availability and extending its lifetime. From service to retrofit and new equipement or offer covers the full spectrum of our customer needs. While our CO2 cut consultancy helps our customers to asses to potential CO2 reductions which can be obtained on existing plants, we develop the future technologies for low or zero emissions new plants. New Equipment High efficiency plants Biomass co-firing Carbon capture and storage Service and Retrofit Retrofit (efficiency improvement) Biomass Cofiring/Fuel switch Integrated Retrofit Projects

24 1& 2. INCREASED EFFICIENCY Biomass Co-firing - example
Retrofit to Biomass co-firing in UK 2x 60 T/Hr Biomass fuel handling and preparation systems 2006, UK, 2/4 x 500 MWe ALSTOM T Fired Boilers EPC 20% Heat input Biomass and 2x 100MWe – CO2 free Multi Fuels = Wood Pellets, Palm Kernels, Olive Stones, Olive Cake Total CO2 savings per year = 800kt pa ! NEXT STEPS: Several projects under discussion R&D Program to develop wider range of biomass fuel source capabilities Owner: JC Foucher/ DJ Waldron/S Saimbi TO BE UPDATED Fully commissioned in 2006,first dedicated Biomass Co-firing plant in the UK. 2006, UK, 2/4 x 500 MWe ALSTOM T Fired Boilers EPC 2/4 x 500 MWe ALSTOM T Fired Boilers EPC retrofit to Biomass co-firing Processing Up to 20% Biomass Heat Input Basis per unit equivalent to 2x 100MWe Multi Biomass Fuels e.g. Wood Pellets, Palm Kernels, Olive Stones, Olive Cake <15% Moisture CO2 savings per year = T/year !

Lignite Drying - Hazelwood 2030 Demonstration Project Hazelwood 2030 Demonstration Project Customer: International Power Integrated Plant Retrofit Lignite Dryer Installation Demonstration CO2 reduction project Commissioned late last year – 16 month program - 01/04/ P 25

26 1. INCREASED EFFICIENCY Emission Reduction through Plant Retrofitting
HP Retrofit IP Retrofit LP Retrofit Performance improvement ~ 1.5% ~ 0.5% ~ 3% (Heat Rate) Emissions reduction ~ 1.5% ~ 0.5% ~ 3% g/kWh Performance improvement shown as heat rate to show efficiency improvement and emissions are directly linked Further performance improvement through integrated boiler and turbine retrofit solutions

27 2. INCREASED EFFICIENCY New Steam Plant – Higher Steam Conditions to boost Efficincies
Performance improvement shown as heat rate to show efficiency improvement and emissions are directly linked New Plant Efficiency Targets : Combined Cycle Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plants: 60% + (nett) Black Coal Fired Steam Plants: 50%+ (nett)

28 3. “CAPTURE READY” PLANT CONCEPT For New Plant Built before CCS is Commercialised
The need The answer Address today the issues raised by future stringent CO2 regulations CO2 ready power plant concept CO2 capture ready plant definition: Plant designed to have CO2 capture added at some time in the future with minimal impact on plant lifetime performance and cost Availability of a CO2 ready plant: Based on post-combustion scrubbing or oxy-combustion processes, coal-fired plants are CO2 ready provided that: Transport and storage of CO2 is validated Extra room is left for the installation /layout for the capture plant or ASU Suitable back-end equipment is installed Future shut-down time is minimised Owner: P. Paelinck The EU has already announced its intention to regulate such that fossil fuelled power plants will have to be “capture ready” by 2010. Both our US and European customers have expressed their desire that this concept should be developed rapidly for new plants. A capture ready plant ensures that: Nothing will prevent a later retrofit to CO2 capture and storage The retrofit will be possible at minimal costs and shut-down time for the customer. ALSTOM is currently developing this concept for coal fired PC plants. Insure CO2 readiness of current power plants – IEA Standards Source : ALSTOM analysis

29 An integrated approach is key
3. “CAPTURE READY” PLANT CONCEPT CO2 “Capture Ready” concept for a Coal Power Plant Optimisation of the cooling system Recovery of heat in the CO2 capture and compression Control system adaptation Preparation for increased low pressure steam demand from steam turbine Optimisation of the Boiler surfaces according Modifications of the heat load sharing Provision for auxiliary Power consumption Provisions in arrangement planning Owner: P. Paelinck/P. Delage Of course many new plants are being constructed at present. At present there is no economic driver to apply CO2 capture to new or old plant because there is no or only very limited opportunites to store any CO2 capture in the current situation. However this will we hope change in the future. To make it possible to apply CO2 scrubbing to newly constructed at such time as it does make economic sense we have defined the concept of a capture ready plant. The plant can be built to current standards but with space, infrastructure and features to Minimse the cost and down time needed to apply capture later. An example of such features would be to provide capacity for exhaust cleaning down to the level needed for the range of CO2 capture technologies we are developing. Improvement of flue gas cleaning and potentially addition of components An integrated approach is key

30 Example of CO2 a Capture Plant

31 4. CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS Zero emission technology pathways
Power Plant with CO2 Capture SOLUTIONS DEVELOPED BY ALSTOM Pre-combustion (New plants only) Oxy-combustion (New + retrofit) Post-combustion (New + retrofit) Owner: P. Paelinck Several solutions are being pursued in the industry for CO2 Capture, ALSTOM has given R&D priority to those solutions having also a retrofit potential on the installed base, like oxy-combustion and post combustion In pre-combustion, the fuel, usually coal is transformed into a synthesis gas by gasification. This synthesis gas is upgraded to hydrogen through a CO shift reaction, and CO2 is removed before the hydrogen combustion in a combined cycle turbine. This process, is also called Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, or IGCC and applies only to New Plants In oxy combustion, the fuel is combusted with pure oxygen. After condensation of the water a rather pure stream of CO2 is obtained, ready for compression and storage. Source: Vattenfall Source: Vattenfall Source: Vattenfall All require a form of Gas Separation Technology - 01/04/ P 31

32 4. CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS Technology comparison –2015 Design – 650 Mwe (net)
Cost of electricity comparison Benchmark Analysis, based on EPRI, IEA, CPS, CERA studies ALSTOM analysis 90 USC PC and ALSTOM technologies 80 75,8 The only valid benchmark for evaluating competitiveness of CO2 capture technologies is the COE.. The costs shown here are based on state of the art IGCC and PC technologies in the 800 MW gross/650 MW net range. IGCC has a very high starting capital cost and availability issues. While CO2 capture is less expensive on IGCC, the end result comparison on COE still favors supercritical PC with a post-combustion solution like amine, oxy-combustion. and certainly ammonia. Ammonia, if successfully developed, which we have so far all reasons to believe, will also provide for flexibility,and retrofitability to existing units, all promises that IGCC cannot fullfill. Note: Carbon capture technologies based on state-of-the art new plants – 2015 design – assumption of 47% efficiency 71 70 67,9 61,3 CoE ($ / MWh net) 58,5 60 48,8 50 40 30 SCPC without Capture IGCC without capture SCPC with Amonia Capture SCPC with Future Amine Capture Oxy PC IGCC with capture 11

33 4. CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS A. Pre Combustion Solution for New Plants: IGCC+Capture
CO2 Capture technology is proven and economical in other industries High Capital and Operating Costs Limited operation flexibility Plant retrofit: not possible Larger Landspace requirements Highest cost of electricity Can make sense in polygeneration context Owner: P. Paelinck/Holger Nagel ALSTOM has experience in IGCC, the above picture shows the API Falconara IGCC plant, it is one of Italy's first gasification power plants fueled by oil refinery residuals. It is commercial operation since April Alstom supplied the power island equipped with an ALSTOM GT13E2 190 MW medium btu turbine. The Mit report issued in March highlighted that such IGCC plants for power production without CO2 capture did not make technical sense. These plants indeed both require much lager capital investement, well above 3000 $/kw installed in recent designs and are less efficient than USC PC plants, therby emitting more CO2 for the same MW produced. The CO2 capture technology to be used in an IGCC plant has been proven in other industries, but the compatible hydrogen turbine is still under development. Full integration of ASU, gasification, synthesis gas processing with CO2 removal, and hydrogen combined cycle power production must still be validated and presents significant challenges in terms of plant availability, flexibility, efficiency and overall cost of electricity. Furthermore this technology doesn‘t address the issue of the emissions of the installed base. For those reasons, ALSTOM has made the choice to pursue different options to develop a zero-emission power plant. Still, we believe that gasification and power production may have a future in the context of coal to liquids and polygeneration. In this respect ALTOM continues the development of lean-gas and hydrogen combution, but will not supply integrated IGCC solutions. API Falconara IGCC, 290 MW Cogeneneration with ALSTOM 190 MW GT13E2

34 4. CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS B. Oxy-combustion : Oxyfired CFB
Fuel Flexibility Significant boiler size reduction Recycled solids control CFB temperature in external exchanger Possibility of integrated membrane oxygen production being studied Owner: P. Paelinck/JF Léandri

35 CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS B. Oxy-combustion: Chemical Looping Metal Oxides
Depleted air Electricity Production (N , O ) 2 2 N2, O2 CO 2 H2O, CO2 Electricity Production Condenser MeO Me + 1/2O2 -> MeO CxHy + MeO -> Me + CO2 + H2O H O Air Reactor 2 Fuel Reactor Me Owner: P. Paelinck/JF Léandri Natural gas, refinery gas, Coal, Fuel-oil, Petcoke,Biomass Fuel Air (C H ) x y

36 4. CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS C. Post Combustion Solutions for New Plants and Retrofit
CO2 absorption processes (MEA, MDEA) Available in commercial scale Retrofitable and flexible High energy demand for regeneration of solvents PP Esbjerg (DK) Owner: P. Paelinck/ Pointbriand 1 t CO2/h pilot plant (CASTOR EU-FP6)

37 4. CO2 CAPTURE SOLUTIONS C. Chilled Ammonia Process
A promising technology for post combustion carbon capture Principle Ammonia (NH3) reacts with CO2 and water. It forms ammonia carbonate or bicarbonate Moderately raising the temperatures reverses the above reactions – releasing CO2 Advantages High efficiency capture of CO2 and low heat of reaction Low cost reagent No degradation during absorption-regeneration Tolerance to oxygen and contaminations in flue gas Owner/ P. Paelinck/S.Black 5 MW Pilot Plant (USA) Start-up anticipated for 2007

38 Agenda Alstom Today The CO2 Challenge Alstom CO2 Strategy
CO2 – Future Directions - 01/04/ P 38 38

39 Coal - Current Status and Medium Term Developments
ALSTOM SOLUTION NOW ALSTOM SOLUTION TOMORROW Installed base Improved efficiency through integrated retrofits up to 3% points Reduced conventional emissions by 95% - 99% through Environmental Control Systems Black Coal Net Plant Efficiencies >46.5% today*) Post combustion CO2 scrubbing to achieve emission reduction Efficiencies of 50%+ Post-combustion CO2 capture Oxyfiring Pre-combustion CO2 capture? New base *) LHV based; plants under construction with ~30 mbar condenser pressure by river/seawater cooling) - 01/04/ P 39

40 Gas - Current Status and Medium Term Developments
ALSTOM SOLUTION NOW ALSTOM SOLUTION TOMORROW Installed base Improved Efficiency by Conversion of Open Cycle Plants to Combined Cycle Plants from ~35% to ~55%+*) Improved efficiency by up to 1% points through upgrades Efficiencies up to 59% for Combined Cycle* Post combustion CO2 scrubbing to achieve emission reduction Efficiencies of 60%+ Post-combustion CO2 capture New base *) LHV based; ISO conditions, 45 mbar condenser pressure - 01/04/ P 40

41 Main Alstom Demonstration Partnerships/Projects Announced
CHILLED AMMONIA Stanford (US) - Gas and Coal 0.25 MWt Pleasant Prairie (US) - Coal 5 MWt Mountaineer (US) - Coal Northeastern (US) - Coal 30 MWt >200 MWt Karlshamn (Sweden) - Gas 5 MWt A quick view on our developments and as you see we are teaming up with main players of the power industry. As you see, Vattenfall, E-On, Statoil, Total, WE Energy, EPRI and more recently DOW with whom we signed an agreement for development of advanced Amine all these key actors are here firmly committed. Mongstad (Norway) - Gas 40 MWt ADVANCED AMINES Joint Development Partnership OXY-COMB Schwarze Pumpe (Germany) - Coal 30 MWt Lacq (France) - Gas 30 MWt Lignite Drying Hazelwood 2030 (Australia) 330 MWt - 01/04/ P 41

42 Capture and Storage Deployment time-line
Roadmap Capture 2007 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Post-comb. Pilot / Demo Pre-commercial Commercialization Oxy-comb. Pilot / Demo Pre-commercial Commercialization Pre-comb. Pilot / Demo Pre-commercial Commercialization Transport EU,US Australia Local, limited EOR projects + Demo Progressive pipeline deployment, depending on validated storage sites Storage EU,US Australia EOR + validation of storage sites Ramp-up to full scale saline aquifer storage Source : Alstom Analysis Ample storage available but its timely deployment is the likely bottleneck - 01/04/ P 42

43 Carbon intensity solutions are available today for the installed base
CO2 Conclusion Carbon intensity solutions are available today for the installed base Post Combustion CCS offers the best long term solution to fossil fuel power station GHG emissions Alstom is participating in the development of carbon capture solutions which should be commercially available from 2015 on - 01/04/ P 43 43

44 Post-Combustion Field Pilot at WE Energies
Industrial pilot program Project participation through EPRI by over 30 US and international utilities Designed to capture up around 15,000 tons/year of CO2 at full capacity Absorber and cooling systems commissioned Erection of regenerator system in completion Parametric testing to commence March 2008 Will provide data necessary to establish “proof of concept” Test Bench 5 MW, start up in February 2008 Pleasant Prairie Power Plant (US) This plant is now complete and will start before end-March. We had successful inauguration press conference on Feb 27, well covered in the US and international press. Note: The CO2 will not be stored, but released to atmosphere - 01/04/ P 44

45 Post-Combustion Field Pilot at E.ON Karlshamn
Karlshamn Power Plant (Sweden) Industrial pilot program Designed to capture up around 15,000 tons/year of CO2 at full capacity Project schedule: Commissionning July 08 Testing Fall 2008 Testing to continue into late 2009 Test bench 3D schematic Project advancing on track, all main components have been ordered. - 01/04/ P 45

46 Industrial demonstrator 30 MWt, Industrial demonstrator 40 MWt,
Post-Combustion Demonstrations: AEP & STATOIL Designed to capture up around 100,000 tons/year of CO2 at full capacity Saline aquifers storage Commenced engineering Oct 07 Project commissioning 09 European Test Centre Mongstad for flue gases from natural gas CHP plant and a refinery Designed to capture 100,000 tons/year Industrial demonstrator 30 MWt, Mountaineer (US) The storage for the Statoil project is still under discussion, part of the CO2 could be liquified for ship transportation and storage in the Snovit acquifer site Northern Norway. Industrial demonstrator 40 MWt, Mongstad (Norway) - 01/04/ P 46

47 Post Combustion Partnership with DOW
Amine CO2 capture is proven Retrofitable Installed on a few plants burning coal High energy demand for regeneration Exclusive partnership with DOW Advanced Amines Improved Process Plant Integration PP Esbjerg Denmark 1 t CO2/h pilot plant (CASTOR EU-FP6) Other partnerships are in advanced discussion to have a first 30 MW demo plant on stream by end 2009, based on the DOW technology. See also attached Q&A on Amine Warrior Run, Maryland AES CFB w/MEA CO2 separation SHADY POINT, OKLAHOMA, USA AES CFB w/ MEA CO2 separation - 01/04/ P 47

48 Oxy-Combustion Oxy-PC: Demonstration 30 MWth: Vattenfall
Goal: validation and improvement of oxyfuel process starting summer 2008 Main features 5,2 t/h solid fuel 10t/h oxygen 40 t/h steam 9 t/h CO2 ALSTOM supplies the oxy-boiler and ESP Owner: P. Paelinck/JF Leandri/A.Schimkat On 20 September 2007, Vattenfall successfully installed the combustion chamber into the oxyfuel-boiler on the construction ground of the Schwarze Pumpe CO2-free pilot plant in Germany. The combustion chamber that weighs 23 tons was lifted into the boiler- house by a 600-ton-crane. Overall, the oxyfuel-boiler has a height of 25 metres, which made the process a logistic challenge. The whole process took about two hours and 30 people were involved to make it possible. The two CO2-capture tanks were installed on the same day. The combustion chamber was delivered by Alstom Power Boiler in Stuttgart, who will deliver the electrostatic precipitator for the flue gas as well. The oxy boiler installation is now complete, and will be fired in May this year for the first testing. The CO2 will be liquified and transported for storage experiments on the Altmark field. 30 MWt Demonstration – Schwarze Pumpe, Germany Source: Vattenfall - 01/04/ P 48

49 Oxy-Combustion Oxy-PC: Demonstration 30 MWth: Vattenfall
WEBCAM: Cryogenic unit Oxy boiler CO2 Compression This is a recent view from the site webcam. - 01/04/ P 49

50 Oxy-Combustion Oxy-PC: Demonstration 30 MWth: TOTAL Lacq
Goal: validation and improvement of oxyfuel process starting 2008 Main features 40 t/h steam, 240 t/day Oxygen 150,000 tons CO2 will be stored in a depleted gas field Owner: P. Paelinck/ This project is about the retrofit of an existing boiler to oxy-combustion with natural gas. Alstom is resloving the challenge to make the boiler air-tight in order to obtain the purest possible CO2 at the outlet. This will be the first European truly integrated Capture and storage project as the CO2 will be transported in an existing pipeline for storage in a depleted Oil&Gas field in Lacq. 30 MWt demonstration – Lacq, France Source: TOTAL - 01/04/ P 50


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