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Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations 28.04.08 Anja Behnke Federal Environment Agency Germany Determination of sectoral Emission factors.

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Presentation on theme: "Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations 28.04.08 Anja Behnke Federal Environment Agency Germany Determination of sectoral Emission factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Anja Behnke Federal Environment Agency Germany Determination of sectoral Emission factors for small combustion installations

2 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Contents Emission factors: methodology Results Projections

3 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Contents Emission factors: methodology Results Projections

4 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Research project on behalf of the environment agency Dr. M. Struschka; Institute for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University Stuttgart: Determination of average emission factors for the current and future development of emissions from combustion units in households and the small consumer sector

5 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Improvement of data for several reporting obligations Source category 1.A.4 (a, b, c) –Small & medium combustion installations –Residential (households, [mobile sources]) –Small consumer sector –Armed forces Approx. 30,000,000 installations Scope of the Study

6 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations What we need to know Fuels used in SCIs Construction types and their nominal heat output stock of boilers, burners and heating appliances of every type appliance-specific energy consumption –total fuel comsumption in small combustion installations –share of the total consumption for each type of installation Emission measurements for every type –mode of operation (share of full load, part load) –age structure (three classes) Projections –projections on energy input –options for additional measures

7 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations What we take into account –Light fuel oil –Natural gas –Coke from hard coal, hard coal briquettes –Brown coal briquettes from different areas –Untreated wood, wood waste, pellets, wood chips, straw Else: –operation mode (full load, part load) –year of manufacture (3 age classes: before 1988/89, 1989 – 2000, ) Types of installations: Fuels: –vaporizing burners –atomizing burners –condensing boilers –Fan assisted gas burners (boiler) –Natural draught burners (boilers) –combi-waterheaters –instantaneous water heaters –storage water heaters –independent convection heaters –Logwood Boilers (central and floor heating) –Woodchip boilers –Pellet boilers –Pellet stoves –Slow combustion stoves –Masonary heaters and tiled stoves –openfire stoves –fireplaces (open or closed inserts) –bathroom boilers –cookers

8 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Data Sources Determination of the number of installations and their energy consumption –national energy balance –data from chimney sweeps regular monitoring survey in selected chimney sweep districts –extensive literature analysis e.g. houshold surveys on wood consumption Determination of emission factors –Literature analysis: –emission measurement from test stands –field investigations

9 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Flue Gas Components Carbon dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, Methane Carbon monoxide, volatile organic carbon, NMVOC Particulate matter (PM 10, PM 2.5, PM 1 ) Benzene Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Hydrochloric acid Polychlorinated dioxines and furanes (PCDD/PCDF) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Heavy metals: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, Zn

10 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Contents Emission factors: methodology Results Projections

11 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations

12 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations

13 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations

14 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Fuels for heat generation

15 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Emissions from SCI in households

16 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Emissions from SCI in households

17 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Contents Emission factors: methodology Results Projections

18 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Projections: Fuel use in SCI in households

19 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Projections: Fuel use in SCI in households

20 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations WoM-Scenario

21 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations With additional Measures-Scenario

22 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations PM-emissions from wood-fired SCI in households

23 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Contents Emission factors: methodology Results Projections Uncertainties

24 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Uncertainties Estimation of uncertainties by expert judgement Sources of error: –Uncertainties resulting from having too little emissions data; –Uncertainties in estimating transfer factors (systematic differences between test-bench and field measurements); –Uncertainties in the plant data used (overall group structure in terms of type, age and performance and fuel consumption) Estimation for every type of installation, fuel and source category

25 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Uncertainties Exact numbers not yet available Uncertainties for households lower than for small consumers (but household emissions are much more important than SME emissions) Generally: good data quality for CO 2,CO, NO x, higher uncertainties for PAH, PCDD/PCDF Large differences between measurements for organic components and PM from solid fuel combustion Often log-normal probability distribution

26 Emission Factors for Small Combustion Installations Thank your for your attention!


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