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UPCOMING COMBUSTION MACT STANDARDS – Boilers, Engines and Turbines Technical Meeting and Annual Business Luncheon Indiana Chapter of the A&WMA April 16,

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Presentation on theme: "UPCOMING COMBUSTION MACT STANDARDS – Boilers, Engines and Turbines Technical Meeting and Annual Business Luncheon Indiana Chapter of the A&WMA April 16,"— Presentation transcript:

1 UPCOMING COMBUSTION MACT STANDARDS – Boilers, Engines and Turbines Technical Meeting and Annual Business Luncheon Indiana Chapter of the A&WMA April 16, 2002 Indianapolis, Indiana Dr. Robert J. Wayland, Leader Combustion Group U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

2 Presentation Outline Summarize the status of the: –Industrial Boiler and Process Heater MACT –Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine MACT –Stationary Combustion Turbine MACT –Steam Electric Utility Generating Unit MACT –112(j) MACT Hammer Issue

3 Status of Industrial Boiler MACT Source categories included: –Industrial Boilers –Institutional/Commercial Boilers –Process Heaters Major source MACT only Subcategorizing by fuel type, size, and use

4 Industrial Boilers plus Process Heaters ? Boilers and indirect-fired process heaters are similar combustion devices –Combust similar fuels to heat water (steam) or other materials –Both transfer heat indirectly –Fuel-related emissions are the same –Organic HAPs are similar

5 Emission Controls Various controls and combination are used –Metals and particulate matter Fabric filters, ESP, scrubbers –Acid gases (HCl) Scrubbers (Wet and Dry) –Mercury Fabric filters –Organic HAPs (Dioxins, Formaldehyde) CO monitoring and limit

6 Preliminary Subcategories Three main subcategories selected based on fuel type: –Solid fuel-fired units –Liquid fuel-fired units –Gaseous fuel-fired units Additional subcategories to analyze impacts on small businesses –Subcategories based on size Greater than 10 million Btu/hr heat input Less than 10 million Btu/hr heat input –Subcategories based on use Limited-use (less than 10% capacity factor) Total of 9 subcategories

7 MACT Floor Results Preliminary MACT floors based on control technologies for existing sources –For solid fuel boilers Large units -- Baghouse (metals)/ scrubber (HCl) Small units -- No Floor Limited-use Units -- ESP –For liquid fuel units -- No Floor –For gaseous fuel units -- No Floor MACT floors are actually emissions levels

8 MACT Floor - New Units Based on control technologies, state regulations, and new source performance standard (NSPS) Solid and Liquid fuel units Large units -- Baghouse/scrubber/CO limit Small units -- Baghouse/scrubber Limited-use Units -- Baghouse/scrubber/CO limit Gaseous fuel units Large/limited use units -- CO limit Small units -- No Floor MACT floors are actually emissions levels

9 Preliminary MACT Floor Levels Based on review of emission database Existing large solid fuel-fired units PM -- about 0.07 lb/million Btu HCl -- about 0.09 lb/million Btu (90 ppm) Hg -- about 4 lb/trillion Btu New large solid fuel-fired units PM -- about 0.01 lb/million Btu HCl -- about 0.02 lb/million Btu (20 ppm) CO % oxygen Hg -- about 1 lb/trillion Btu

10 INFORMATION AND CONTACT Information on the MACT rulemaking for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters is available on EPAs web site at: –www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/combust/boiler/boilerpg.html Contact: Jim Eddinger (phone) (fax)

11 Stationary Combustion Turbine (CT) and Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (RICE) MACT

12 RICE-Subcategories Emergency power/limited use Landfill gas or digester gas combusted as primary fuel Manufacturers nameplate rating of 500 brake horsepower Other: –Two stroke lean burn (2SLB) –Four stroke lean burn (4SLB) –Four stroke rich burn (4SRB) –Compression Ignition (CI).

13 RICE-Applicability Applies to each stationary RICE located at a major source of HAP Stationary RICE meeting any of the following criteria have no requirements except for an initial notification requirement: –Emergency power/limited use units –Units that combust digester or landfill gas as primary fuel Stationary RICE meeting any of the following criteria have no requirements: –Existing 2SLB, existing 4SLB, and existing CI –Manufacturers nameplate rating 500 brake horsepower

14 RICE-Emission Limitations Existing, New, or Reconstructed 4SRB Stationary RICE –Reduce formaldehyde emissions by 75% or more, if you use NSCR, or –Limit formaldehyde in RICE exhaust to 350 ppbvd or less if you do not use NSCR New or Reconstructed 2SLB Stationary RICE –Reduce CO emissions by 60% or more if you use an oxidation catalyst, or –Limit formaldehyde in RICE exhaust to 17 ppmvd or less if you do not use an oxidation catalyst

15 RICE-Emission Limitations (cont.) New or Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE –Reduce CO emissions by 93% or more if you use an oxidation catalyst, or –Limit formaldehyde in RICE exhaust to 14 ppmvd or less if you do not use an oxidation catalyst New or Reconstructed CI Stationary RICE –Reduce CO emissions by 70% or more if you use an oxidation catalyst, or –Limit formaldehyde in RICE exhaust to 580 ppbvd or less if you do not use an oxidation catalyst

16 RICE-Operating Limitations 4SRB stationary RICE complying with the formaldehyde percent reduction limitation using NSCR –Operating limitations for catalyst pressure drop, temperature rise across catalyst, and engine exhaust temperature 4SRB stationary RICE complying with the formaldehyde concentration limitation –Operating limitation for operating load or fuel flow rate

17 RICE-Operating Limitations (cont.) 2SLB, 4SLB, CI; <5000 HP; complying with CO reduction requirement: –Operating limitation for catalyst pressure drop and engine exhaust temperature –2SLB, 4SLB, CI; complying with formaldehyde emission limitation: –Operating limitation for operating load or fuel flow rate

18 RICE-Testing/Monitoring 2SLB, 4SLB, CI; <5000 HP; complying with CO reduction requirement: –Continuous Parameter Monitoring System (CPMS) to monitor pressure drop and inlet temperature for catalyst; continuously monitor and record these values –Initial and quarterly performance tests to demonstrate CO reduction 2SLB, 4SLB, CI; 5000 HP; complying with CO reduction requirement: –CEMS –Initial performance evaluation and demonstration of CO reduction –Yearly RATA

19 RICE-Testing/Monitoring (cont.) 4SRB stationary RICE complying with the formaldehyde percent reduction limitation using NSCR: –CPMS to monitor pressure drop, inlet temperature, and temperature rise for catalyst; continuously monitor and record these values –Initial performance test to demonstrate formaldehyde reduction –If 5000 HP, semiannual performance tests for formaldehyde; frequency may be reduced to annually

20 RICE-Testing/Monitoring (cont.) Stationary RICE complying with the formaldehyde concentration limitation: –Initial performance test to demonstrate you are meeting emission limit –CPMS to monitor operating load or fuel flow rate; continuously monitor and record these values –Semiannual performance tests; frequency may be reduced to annually

21 Stationary Combustion Turbine

22 Combustion Turbine -Applicability The rule will apply to each stationary combustion turbine with a rated peak power output greater than 1.0 MW located at major sources, which is not: –An emergency stationary combustion turbine –A stationary combustion turbine burning landfill gas or digester gas as its primary fuel –A limited use stationary combustion turbine (operated 50 hours per year) –An existing diffusion flame stationary combustion turbine

23 CT-Emission Limitations You must meet one of the following emission limitations: –Reduce CO emissions in the turbine exhaust by 95%, if you are using an oxidation catalyst emission control device, or –Reduce the concentration of formaldehyde in the turbine exhaust to 25 ppbvd or less, if you use means other than an oxidation catalyst emission control device

24 CT-Operating Limitations If you comply with the emission limitation for CO reduction, or if you comply with the emission limitation for formaldehyde and your turbine is lean premix or diffusion flame: –No operating limitations If you comply with the formaldehyde emission limitation and your turbine is not lean premix or diffusion flame: –Petition Administrator for approval of (no) operating limitations

25 CT-Testing/Monitoring New/reconstructed turbines complying with the emission limitation for CO reduction: –Install CEMS –Initial performance evaluation –Initial demonstration of 95% CO reduction –Yearly RATA

26 CT-Testing/Monitoring (cont.) New/reconstructed turbines complying with the emission limitation for formaldehyde: –Initial performance test using Method 320, CARB 430, SW-846, or proposed Method 323 –Meet low NOx emission levels required by federally enforceable permit (or guaranteed by turbine manufacturer if no permit level)

27 CT-Testing/Monitoring (cont.) Existing lean premix turbines: –No initial compliance requirements –Meet low NOx emission levels required by federally enforceable permit (or guaranteed by turbine manufacturer if there is no permit level) Turbines complying with formaldehyde emission limitation that are not lean premix or diffusion flame: –Petition Administrator for approval of (no) operating limitations

28 Information and Contact Information on the MACT rulemaking for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) and Stationary Combustion Gas Turbines is available on EPAs web site at: –www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/combust/turbine/turbpg.html –www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/combust/engine/ricepg.html Contact: Sims Roy (phone) (fax)

29 Utility Boiler MACT

30 Background -- Mandate Section 112(n)(1)(A) of CAA: EPA must perform study of, and report to Congress on, the hazards to the public health of HAP emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units Based on the results of the study, Administrator must determine whether HAP regulations for such units are necessary and appropriate

31 Background -- Determination EPA announced finding on 12/14/2000 –Regulation necessary for oil- and coal-fired boilers –Regulation not necessary for gas-fired boilers –Based on Public health concerns Mercury emissions from power plants Information that mercury from power plants can be controlled

32 Section 112 Focus Most of attention has been on mercury from coal-fired units Also concerned about –Other HAP from coal-fired units –Nickel from oil-fired units

33 Timing Settlement agreement provides for –Proposal of section 112 regulations by 12/15/2003 –Promulgation of section 112 regulations by 12/15/2004 Compliance date of 12/15/2007

34 Mercury Capture Hg(p) easily captured by ESPs and FFs Hg 2+ exhibits high to low solubility and can generally be captured in scrubbers Hg° is insoluble; must be adsorbed on to solids or converted to Hg 2+ for capture by scrubbing Hg 2+ is generally easier to adsorb than Hg° Adsorption highly dependent on flue gas composition and temperature Typical Hg 2+ :Hg° in flue gas: bituminous coal > subbituminous coal > lignite

35 Major Conclusions of Determination Studies 48 tons of Hg emitted from coal-fired units in 1999 Capture by existing equipment ranges from 0 to >90% Moderate to good capture for bituminous Poor capture for subbituminous and lignite Best capture for dry and wet FGD scrubbers Capture associated with PM controls: FF > ESPs > PM scrubbers & mechanical collectors NOx controls may enhance ability to capture Hg

36 MEAN MERCURY EMISSION REDUCTIONS FOR EXISTING PC-FIRED UNITS a, %

37 MERCURY CONTROL RETROFIT OPTIONS ESP Control options** Sorbent Injection (SI) * Add CFBA + SI Add FF + SI SDA ESP (or FF) APCD Configuration* No. of Units ** Selected control options--other options possible. Flue gas cooling and additional ducting may be used with sorbent injection (SI) SI or oxidization + SI * ESP= electrostatic precipitator, FF=fabric filter, CFBA=circulating fluidized-bed absorber, SCR=selective catalytic reduction (6 units), SDA=Spray dry adsorber Wet FGD Scrubber SI ESP (or FF) Boilers (1140) PC fired- 979 Cyclone- 87 Fluid Bed- 42 Stoker- 32 SCR FF SI Other units Coals and Fuels Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Mixtures Boilers and Fuels 79 Scrubber chem mods Add SCR + chem mods Add reagents, catalysts, or sorbent bed

38 ESTIMATED FEASIBLE LEVELS OF NEAR- AND LONG-TERM CONTROL* PERCENT REDUCTION FROM INLET CONCENTRATON Existing Current Near-Term TechnologyBitum. Subb.Bitum. Subb. ESP FF SDA + ESP SDA + FF ESP + wet FGD FF + Wet FGD Long-term control ranges from 85 to 95 % depending on coal and control technologies * Mercury control for pulverized coal-fired boilers and units with cold-side ESPs or FFs. Current control from ICR data; Near-term control ( ) is base on use of PAC; Long term control for technologies available in

39 Information and Content Information on the MACT rulemaking for steam electric utility generating units is available on EPAs web site at: –www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/combust/utiltox/utoxpg.html Contact: Bill Maxwell (phone) (fax)

40 112(j) – The MACT Hammer

41 112(j) Basic Requirements If MACT standards are not issued within 18 months after scheduled date, sources must submit a Title V permit application Permitting authority (i.e., State) determines equivalent case-by-case MACT Hammer Date for 10-year MACT rules is May 15, 2002

42 112(j) Rule Amendments Final amendments signed March 5, part application process created: –Source must submit Part 1 (notification) on May 15, 2002, or 30 days after permitting authority notification –Part 2 due 24 months later (in most cases, May 15, 2004) Permitting authority determines case-by-case MACT equivalent to what EPA would have established for new and existing sources Permitting authority issues a Title V Permit within 18 months after receiving a complete Part 2 application

43 Part 1 Application Content Name and address of major source Brief description of major source Identification of relevant source Identification of types of affected sources in the relevant source category Identification of any 112(g) determinations for affected sources

44 Part 2 Application Content Required –Anticipated date of startup for new affected source –HAP emitted by the affected source and total controlled and uncontrolled HAP emission rates –Applicable existing requirements for the affected source –Control technology currently in place –Information relevant to establishing the MACT floor –Any other information reasonably needed/required by the permitting authority

45 Part 2 Application Content (cont.) Optional –Recommended MACT floor –Recommended MACT limitations –Description of control technologies to be applied to meet the MACT requirements –Information on monitoring to demonstrate continuous compliance

46 Where Are We Now? Negotiating with EarthJustice (Sierra Club) to establish a schedule for remaining 10-year MACTs Approximately 9 of remaining 10-year MACTs expected to be promulgated by May 15, 2002 Most 10-year MACTs will be proposed by May 15, 2002; remaining ones by November 2002 Hammer is expected to fall on approximately 31 standards, covering roughly 59 source categories All 10-year MACT standards expected to be promulgated by May 15, 2004

47 Information and Contact Information on the 112(j) rulemaking is available on EPAs web site at: –http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/112j/info/112(j)- table2.html Contact: Rick Colyer (phone) (fax)


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