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Boilers & Thermic Fluid HeatersTraining Session on Energy Equipment Boilers & Thermic Fluid Heaters Presentation to THE GERIAP TOOLKIT Chapter 10 Thermal Systems/Boilers © UNEP GERIAP
Thermal Systems/BoilersTraining Agenda: Boiler What is a boiler and how does it work? What various kinds of boilers are there? How can the performance of a boiler be assessed? What are the energy efficiency opportunities with a boiler? Thermal Systems/Boilers The objectives with this training module is to learn how a boiler works and what different kinds of boilers that there are. In addition, we will also learn how to assess the performance and efficiency of a boiler and how to identify energy efficiency opportunities. Those of you who already have experience from evaluating the performance of a boiler, and from identifying energy efficiency opportunities are more than welcome to share your experiences when we reach this part of the training agenda. © UNEP 2005
Thermal Systems/BoilersWhat is a boiler? A vessel that uses water to transfer combustion heat into working energy While the water is heated its volume increases about 1,600 times Under pressure, the hot water or steam can be transferred into a process Thermal Systems/Boilers A boiler is an enclosed vessel in which combustion heat is transferred into workable energy. By using water as the medium, the combustion heat heats the water to hot water or steam. Thereby, the water’s volume increases about 1600(!) times and creates a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. As the transferred power in a boiler is very high, it can be a dangerous equipment if not treated according to safety measures. By putting the hot water or steam under pressure it can be used to transfer heat energy into a process. This can be illustrated by a schematic overview of a Boiler Room (Next Slide). © UNEP 2005
Thermal Systems/BoilersWhat is a boiler? STEAM TO PROCESS EXHAUST GAS VENT STACK DEAERATOR ECO- NOMI- ZER PUMPS Thermal Systems/Boilers BOILER As you can see, the boiler system comprises of a feed water system (click and circle will appear); a steam system (click and 2 circles will appear); as well as a fuel system (click and circle will appear). This is a schematic overview of a boiler room: The water source, or feed water system, is providing water to the boiler. This is regulated automatically to meet the demand for steam. There are two types of feed water: First condensate feed water that is condensed steam that is returned from the processors, and secondly makeup water that is treated raw water that comes from outside the boiler room and plant processors. In order to achieve higher boiler efficiencies, the feed water is preheated by an economizer that uses the waste heat from the fuel gas. The steam system both collects and controls the steam that is produced in the boiler. The steam is thereafter directed to where it will be used. The pressure of the steam is regulated through the usage of valves and steam pressure gauges. The fuel system provides fuel that is needed to generate the heat. The kind of equipment used in the fuel system varies and depends on what type of fuel that is being used. VENT BURNER WATER SOURCE BLOW DOWN SEPARATOR FUEL BRINE CHEMICAL FEED SOFTENERS Figure: Schematic Overview of a Boiler Room © UNEP 2005
Thermal Systems/BoilersTypes of boilers What type of boilers are there? Fire Tube Boiler Water Tube Boiler Packaged Boiler FBC Boiler Spreader Stoker Boiler Chain- or Traveling Grate Boiler Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Atmospheric Circu-lating Fluidized Bed Combustion Pulverized Fuel Boiler Waste Heat Boiler Thermal Systems/Boilers There are different types of boilers based on different fuels and with various capacities. (Questions to audience) What type of boilers do you know of? What kind of boilers do you use in the industry where you work? (Discussion) (Click once and boiler types will appear) We will look closer at the following types of boilers: Fire Tube Boiler, Water Tube Boiler, Packaged Boiler, FBC Boiler, Spreader Stoker Boiler, Chain Grate or Traveling Grate Boiler, Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion, Pulverized Fuel Boiler and Waste Heat Boiler © UNEP 2005
Thermal Systems/BoilersType of boilers Fire tube boiler Relatively small steam capacities (12,000 kg/hour) Low to medium steam pressures (18 kg/cm2) Operates with oil, gas or solid fuels Thermal Systems/Boilers To begin with, we will look at the Fire tube boiler: This is generally is used for relatively small steam capacities and at low to medium steam pressures. The steam rates for fire tube boilers are up to 12,000 kg/hour with pressures of 18 kg/cm2. Fire tube boilers can operate on oil, gas or solid fuels. (if you can, make reference to which industries that use this boiler and why this choice). Speaker notes to continue…. © UNEP 2005
Thermal Systems/BoilersType of boilers Fire tube boiler Thermal Systems/Boilers This is an illustration of a fire tube boiler. [Text not from the text book: The fuel is burned and heats up the water to steam which is turn channeled to the process] Today, most fire tube boiler are in a packaged construction for all fuels [Explanation of packaged construction lacking]. Figure: Sectional View of a Fire Tube Boiler Source: Bathram © UNEP 2005
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