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Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING www.wing-vechta.de 1 Dr. Aline Veauthier (WING, University.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING www.wing-vechta.de 1 Dr. Aline Veauthier (WING, University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 1 Dr. Aline Veauthier (WING, University of Vechta) Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production Cage ban in Europe – impacts on trade, egg supply and food security

2 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 2 AGENDA Background – Directive 1999/74EC Impacts on egg supply Impacts on trade Impacts on food security Future developement Results

3 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 3 BACKGROUND

4 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 4 On July 19th, 1999 the EU Commission passed: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/74/EC laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. The directive decided that: - From January 1st, 2012 on all cages will be prohibited. - From January 1st, 2003 on no such cages must be installed in EU member countries. - Member countries may decide to ban cages earlier and to tighten regulations of the directive. BACKGROUND

5 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 5 Directive 1999/74/EC distinguishes between: a)Alternative Systems b)Unenriched cage systems c)Enriched cages The Commission also decided that before the final imple- mentation of the directive, additional scientific studies should be undertaken to analyze the impacts on the welfare of laying hens and the economy of production. BACKGROUND

6 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 6 In 2007 the results of the scientific studies were available (www.laywel.eu).www.laywel.eu Based on these results, the Commission decided in 2008: no alteration of the original regulations of the directive, no alterations in the date of implementation. Problem: It took nine years, before the final decision was passed. In this time period, almost no investments were made because nobody was sure about the final regulations of the directive. BACKGROUND

7 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 7 Regulations for enriched cages: Laying hens must have: At least 116 inches 2 (750 cm 2 ) of cage area per hen, of which 93 inches 2 (600 cm 2 ) shall be usable. The height of the cage has to be at least 7.9 inches (20 cm) at every point, including the perch area. No cage shall have a total area that is less than 310 inches 2 (2,000 cm 2 ). A nest. Litter, such that pecking and scratching are possible. Appropriate perches: at least 5.9 inches (15 cm) per hen. BACKGROUND

8 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 8 Regulations for enriched cages: Laying hens must have: A feed trough which may be used without restriction (length: 4.7 inches (12 cm) x number of hens in cage). A drinking system appropriate to the size of the group (at least two nipple drinkers in reach of each hen). To allow inspection, the aisle has to have a minimum width of 35.4 inches (90 cm). A space of at least 13.8 inches (35 cm) must be allowed between the bottom of the first tier and the floor. Cages must be fitted with suitable claw-shortening devices. BACKGROUND

9 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 9 Results: The opposition against cage systems began parallel to the implementation of such systems. A major role in organizing the opposition played German NGOs and the Green Party. After years of discussion, the EU passed Directive 1999/74/EC in With the exception of Austria and the UK all member countries voted for it. It took eight years before the final regulatory statutes were passed in This long time span kept companies from investing in new housing systems. BACKGROUND

10 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 10 EU: Conventional cages banned from January 1st, 2012 on. Not all member countries met the deadline. Estimated cost: about 1.2 billion. In January 2013, about 30 mill. of the 350 mill. layers were still kept in conventional cages, 17 mill. in Italy alone. Problems: trade of eggs that are produced in old cages. Rest of Europe: No cages in Norway and Switzerland; conventional cages still used in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia; animal welfare discussion not yet important in the latter countries. BACKGROUND Laying hens in conventional cages (in June 2012, Mio. animals) France: 1.5 Spain: 12.7 Greece: 1.8 Belgium: 3.5 Portugal: 2.7 Poland: 2.3 Netherlands: 1.6 Cyprus: 0.1 Italy: 17.3 EU: 43.4 Mio. hens

11 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 11 BACKGROUND

12 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING USA: conventional cages will be banned from 2030 on (in California from 2015), if the Egg Bill is passed, the transformation will cost about 4 billion US-$, after 2030 the dominating housing system will be colony nests/enriched cages (95 %), there is a strong opposition against the passing of the Egg Bill from cattle ranchers, pork producers and the Farm Bureau. on June 19 th 2012, the Senate did not vote on the Egg Bill. BACKGROUND

13 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Other countries: In New Zealand, conventional cages will be banned from 2022 on. In Canada, banning is not being discussed, a trans- formation to other housing systems will be a long process organized by all stakeholders of the industry. The discussion to ban cages is under way in Australia, Taiwan, South Korea and just beginning in Japan. In China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, all African countries as well as in non-EU countries in Europe conventional cages are still being used and a banning is not being discussed. BACKGROUND

14 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Other countries: In Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria the transformation of some flocks to enriched cages is considered because of the high egg prices in the EU and the chance to export eggs. BACKGROUND

15 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 15 IMPACTS ON EGG SUPPLY - Germany - EU - 27

16 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 16 IMPACTS ON EGG SUPPLY - Germany - EU - 27

17 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 17 Germany In Germany, conventional cages were banned from January 1st 2010 on, two years earlier than in the rest of the EU. The development of egg production in this country can demonstrate possible impacts of such a decision. EGG SUPPLY

18 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 18 Development of German egg production (in 1,000 t) EGG SUPPLY %

19 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 19 Development of the number of layers and farms in Germany between 2000 and 2012; data in 1,000 birds EGG SUPPLY Cage ban

20 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING birds EGG SUPPLY Number of laying hens in Germany

21 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EGG SUPPLY Degree of capacity utilization in farms with more than 3,000 hen places in Germany

22 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EGG SUPPLY Laying hens by housing systems in Germany (% share of layer farms with 3,000 and more places) Destatis

23 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 23 IMPACTS ON EGG SUPPLY - Germany - EU - 27

24 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Number of laying hens in EU-27 birds EGG SUPPLY

25 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Number of laying hens in the Netherlands birds EGG SUPPLY

26 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 26 Housing systems in egg production in EU member countries (2010) EGG SUPPLY

27 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EU market situation for Eggs and Poultry Man Com 21 March 2013 EGG SUPPLY Prices Production

28 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EU market situation for Eggs and Poultry Man Com 21 March 2013 EGG SUPPLY

29 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 29 IMPACTS ON TRADE

30 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING TRADE Imports of shell eggs into Germany + 37 %

31 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Egg imports into selected countries TRADE

32 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EU Egg Imports EU market situation for Eggs and Poultry Man Com 21 March 2013 TRADE

33 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EU Egg Exports EU market situation for Eggs and Poultry Man Com 21 March 2013 TRADE

34 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 34 Exports of Eggs by EU-27 TRADE

35 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Imports of Eggs into EU-27 TRADE

36 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 36 IMPACTS ON FOOD SECURITY

37 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 37 Egg Surplus and Deficit in Europe SECURITY

38 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING SECURITY Prices/100 barn eggs (Size L, bulk) from egg packing station in Germany /100 eggs 2008: moderate Easter price: 8.7 (~12.4 $) : egg shortage due to transformation period + high demand (Easter) highest price 14.5 (~ 20.6 $)! 2010: Egg oversupply: transformation finalised + Dutch egg imports, summer period dramatic price decrease to 6 (~8.5 $) Easter 2008: high feed prices Easter 09 end of 2009: egg shortage due to transformation period

39 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING SECURITY EU Egg Prices/100 eggs (Size M, bulk) Germany

40 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING EU market situation for Eggs and Poultry Man Com 21 March 2013 SECURITY

41 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING SECURITY EU Egg Prices/100 eggs (Size M, bulk) Netherlands

42 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING SECURITY EU Egg Prices/100 eggs (Size M, bulk) France

43 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING SECURITY EU Egg Prices/100 eggs (Size M, bulk) Italy

44 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING SECURITY EU Egg Prices/100 eggs (Size M, bulk) UK

45 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Results : The German case Layer flocks in Germany decreased by over 15.6 % between 2005 and Egg production decreased by over 800 mill. pieces between June 2009 and June The self sufficiency rate fell from 74 % to only 55 %. Shell egg imports increased from 5.6 billion eggs in 2008 to over 7 billion eggs in In 2010, the import volume has reached 8 billion. About 200 mill. were invested by the industry to meet the German legal regulations. Germany will remain the leading egg importing country also in future. Main suppliers will be the Netherlands, Spain and Poland.

46 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Results : The transformation process is still not completed in all EU-27 countries. Layer flocks in EU-27 decreased as a result of the cage ban. Imports in EU-27 increased because of the cage ban. Egg prices increased because of the egg shortage due to the transformation process. The transformation process has to be completed in all countries to analyse further impacts.

47 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 47 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

48 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 48 Trends In bill. people will live on earth, 86 % in threshold and less developed countries. Until 2050 food production has to decrease by 50 % but in 2050 there will be less cultivated land and water supply will be unsure. In treshold and less developed countries meat consumption will increase fast because of an increasing purchase power. Poultry meat and eggs will be the most important protein sources. FUTURE

49 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 49 Future Challenges Climate change. Less cultivated land and water resources. Declining stocks of phosphate. Growing rejection of intensive animal husbandry in developed countries. Consumer types: less meat, no meat, no animal products. Animal welfare aspects. FUTURE

50 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Egg Production in 2015 (in t) ContinentProductionShare (%) Africa3, Asia42, N America*9, SC America5, Europe10, Oceania World * Canada, Mexico, USA Windhorst 2011 FUTURE

51 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING ILLEGAL KILLINGS ON TURKEY FARM FUTURE

52 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Main arguments against a modern, market-oriented poultry industry: number of birds per flock is too large, bird density per m 2 in broiler and turkey production is too high, use of antibiotics is too high and dangerous, regional concentration of large poultry flocks cause environmental problems (air, soil, groundwater), vertical integration is threatening the future of poultry farms, animal welfare (debeaking of small chicks, selection of male chicks in egg production). FUTURE

53 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING The problems: the gap between advertising and the reality on farms, FUTURE

54 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING the widening gap between the perception of the consumers and the necessities of the poultry producers FUTURE

55 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Further Problems: the failure of the poultry industry to explain to the public why certain forms of housing systems developed, why large herd sizes are necessary and when and why antibiotics have to be used, the failure of the poultry industry to switch from reaction to pro-active action in time. FUTURE

56 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING The challenge: to inform the public about the modern systems of egg and poultry meat production, to open the poultry houses to the public and to inform them about housing systems, herd sizes, the cost and profit situation, diseases and their cure, vaccination schemes, animal welfare and environmental problems and steps undertaken to reduce them, to continuously inform media, NGOs and animal welfare organisations about innovations in poultry production which help to reduce animal welfare and environmental problems, to inform the public about the safety and quality of affordable poultry products. FUTURE

57 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Project Transparency in the Poultry Industry Lower Saxony Poultry Association (NGW) Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production (WING), University of Vechta FUTURE

58 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING RESULTS

59 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING 59 What did we learn in Europe? 1.We learned that very often a challenge is a chance and that serious problems lead to innovations. 2. We learned that animal welfare will be an ongoing challenge. 3. We learned that the improvement of housing systems will be an ongoing task. RESULTS

60 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Lessons to be learned from the German experience: Lacking foresight of and politically (election) motivated decisions to ban cages earlier than in the rest of the EU caused severe economic problems for the egg industry and resulted in high financial losses. The time span between the passing of the law and the regulatory statutes has to be short. Otherwise, the transformation process does not begin and at the end does not leave sufficient time for the egg companies to install the new housing systems. Empty and unused facilities were the result in Germany. The decision in the USA to have one law for all states and to set fixed percentages that have to be reached in the transformation process are the right way.

61 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Problems that still have to be solved in the USA after the agreement between UEP and the HSUS in June 2011: What is going to happen in California? The egg industry will suffer in the same way as Germany. But for a much longer time: 14 years! As production costs in colony nests and alternative housing systems are higher than in conventional cages, producers which still use conventional cages will have an advantage compared to producers which have already switched to colony nests. What impacts will this have on the transformation process and on the egg market? What will be the reaction of other NGO´s than the HSUS regarding the agreement? How will food retailers and major egg users react? RESULTS

62 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING In less developed and threshold countries, the supply of a growing population with animal proteins is the most important goal for the future. In developed countries topics like animal welfare, environmental protection and climate protection are becoming more and more important. In developed countries poultry production in large farms is more and more criticized. RESULTS Further Results:

63 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Thank you very much for your attention! Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production (WING), University of Vechta

64 Dr. Aline Veauthier Science and Information Centre for Sustainable Poultry Production – WING Questions


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