Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Energy Usage: An Historical Perspective. 2 Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping the human condition Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Energy Usage: An Historical Perspective. 2 Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping the human condition Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Energy Usage: An Historical Perspective

2 2 Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping the human condition Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping the human condition People's need for energy is essential for survival, so it is not surprising that energy production and consumption are some of the most important activities of human life People's need for energy is essential for survival, so it is not surprising that energy production and consumption are some of the most important activities of human life Indeed, it has been argued that energy is the key "to the advance of civilization," that the evolution of human societies is dependent on the conversion of energy for human use Indeed, it has been argued that energy is the key "to the advance of civilization," that the evolution of human societies is dependent on the conversion of energy for human use Few people have questioned the long-held assumption that standard of living and quality of civilization are proportional to the quantity of energy a society uses Few people have questioned the long-held assumption that standard of living and quality of civilization are proportional to the quantity of energy a society uses However imprecise it may be, most people still accept the steadfast formula: energy=progress=civilization However imprecise it may be, most people still accept the steadfast formula: energy=progress=civilization

3 3 History of Energy Consumption Biological Energy Sources Biological Energy Sources – Initial energy transfer occurs through photosynthesis. – Very early in history humans began to exploit additional energy sources to make life more comfortable. – Human, animal labor – Transportation, cooking, primitive light

4 4 Throughout history, humans have focused on controlling the energy stores and flows that are part of nature Throughout history, humans have focused on controlling the energy stores and flows that are part of nature For tens of thousands of years, people relied solely on the chemical (caloric) energy gained from food that produced the mechanical (kinetic) energy of working muscles For tens of thousands of years, people relied solely on the chemical (caloric) energy gained from food that produced the mechanical (kinetic) energy of working muscles The earliest "energy tools" were those used to hunt animals, harvest edible plants, catch fish and fowl, process and transport foodstuffs, as well as of "fossil and organic energy sources (wood, peat, coal)... used... for heating, cooking, lighting, or for firing the kilns and furnaces used in smelting ores The earliest "energy tools" were those used to hunt animals, harvest edible plants, catch fish and fowl, process and transport foodstuffs, as well as of "fossil and organic energy sources (wood, peat, coal)... used... for heating, cooking, lighting, or for firing the kilns and furnaces used in smelting ores

5 5 Energy use - Middle ages Wind for sailing Wind for sailing Peat, charcoal, coal on ground for fires – cooking, heat Peat, charcoal, coal on ground for fires – cooking, heat Water wheels, wind mills for grain grinding Water wheels, wind mills for grain grinding Animal power also Animal power also Candles – animal fat & whale oil - light Candles – animal fat & whale oil - light

6 6 Before the modern era, people relied for power on their own muscles, on the muscles of domesticated animals, such as horses and oxen, and on water and wind Before the modern era, people relied for power on their own muscles, on the muscles of domesticated animals, such as horses and oxen, and on water and wind People used these energy resources to create a variety of significant landscapes, from agricultural fields and grazing land to mining centers and commercial woodlots, and they built the towns and cities and transportation networks of ancient civilizations People used these energy resources to create a variety of significant landscapes, from agricultural fields and grazing land to mining centers and commercial woodlots, and they built the towns and cities and transportation networks of ancient civilizations The technologies that relied on these energy resources are familiar to us all: axes, picks, plows, harnesses, wagons and carriages, waterwheels, windmills, and sailing ships. The technologies that relied on these energy resources are familiar to us all: axes, picks, plows, harnesses, wagons and carriages, waterwheels, windmills, and sailing ships.

7 7 Increased Use of Wood Energy provided by burning wood enabled people to cook food, heat living areas, and develop primitive metallurgy. Energy provided by burning wood enabled people to cook food, heat living areas, and develop primitive metallurgy. Dense, rapidly growing settlements outstripped wood production, thus new fuel sources had to be utilized. Dense, rapidly growing settlements outstripped wood production, thus new fuel sources had to be utilized. – 1890, coal replaced wood - primary energy source

8 8 Fossil Fuels Carboniferous period, ( Mya) Carboniferous period, ( Mya) – large deposits of plants, animals, and microorganisms. – Led to the formation of fossil fuel deposits.

9 9 Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution - Machines replaced human and animal labor in the manufacture and transportation of goods. Industrial Revolution - Machines replaced human and animal labor in the manufacture and transportation of goods. – Steam engines converting heat energy into forward motion was central to this transformation. Countries or regions without large coal deposits were consequently left behind. Countries or regions without large coal deposits were consequently left behind.

10 10 During the nineteenth century, steam engines improved enormously, and by the 1840s it began competing successfully with water-powered manufacturers, and it soon drove the riverboats and railroads that characterized America's nineteenth century transportation revolution During the nineteenth century, steam engines improved enormously, and by the 1840s it began competing successfully with water-powered manufacturers, and it soon drove the riverboats and railroads that characterized America's nineteenth century transportation revolution The steam engine permanently established the link between fossil energy resources and industrialization The steam engine permanently established the link between fossil energy resources and industrialization The scarcity and high cost of good coal combined with discoveries of petroleum in southern California resulted in the development of oil as steam fuel, which unseated coal as steam fuel during the first half of the twentieth century The scarcity and high cost of good coal combined with discoveries of petroleum in southern California resulted in the development of oil as steam fuel, which unseated coal as steam fuel during the first half of the twentieth century

11 11 Industrial Revolution Prior to the Industrial Revolution, goods were manufactured on a small scale in private homes – master craftsman Prior to the Industrial Revolution, goods were manufactured on a small scale in private homes – master craftsman – Expanding factories = larger labor pools, move to city – 200 years, energy consumption increased 8X *Increased levels of air pollution.

12 12 While coal was being used extensively by the industrial movement, some scientists were already becoming concerned about the exhaust from combustion of fossil fuels, and started developing natural energy sources While coal was being used extensively by the industrial movement, some scientists were already becoming concerned about the exhaust from combustion of fossil fuels, and started developing natural energy sources Solar energy was first developed by Mouchout of France in 1860 in which reflectors concentrated solar radiation to boil water and to operate a small steam engine with the steam produced Solar energy was first developed by Mouchout of France in 1860 in which reflectors concentrated solar radiation to boil water and to operate a small steam engine with the steam produced Small hydroelectrical power plants were also constructed in the 19th century Small hydroelectrical power plants were also constructed in the 19th century Windmills that up until then were used for pumping water or grinding crops were also developed in an attempt to produce electrical power Windmills that up until then were used for pumping water or grinding crops were also developed in an attempt to produce electrical power Geothermal energy began to be used to heat up houses and, by the end of the century, to produce electricity. Geothermal energy began to be used to heat up houses and, by the end of the century, to produce electricity.

13 13 Changes in Energy Sources to 2000

14 14

15 15

16 16 in 1859, Colonel Edwin Drake managed to drill and extract crude petroleum oil out of the ground in Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1859, Colonel Edwin Drake managed to drill and extract crude petroleum oil out of the ground in Titusville, Pennsylvania It was discovered that several useful products could be produced from petroleum, including kerosene, a gas that was ideal for lighting purposes, and gasoline, a fuel that could be used for locomotive purposes It was discovered that several useful products could be produced from petroleum, including kerosene, a gas that was ideal for lighting purposes, and gasoline, a fuel that could be used for locomotive purposes With the invention of internal combustion engines mounted on automobiles, petroleum gradually began to dominate coal in the energy industry. With the invention of internal combustion engines mounted on automobiles, petroleum gradually began to dominate coal in the energy industry. The Wright brothers invented the first airplane with a gasoline engine, which ushered in an era of faster and cheaper transportation The Wright brothers invented the first airplane with a gasoline engine, which ushered in an era of faster and cheaper transportation

17 17 Role of The Automobile Convenience of two-car families Convenience of two-car families Job growth in automobile-related industries Job growth in automobile-related industries Major role in development of industrialized nations. Major role in development of industrialized nations. Cars altered peoples lifestyle Cars altered peoples lifestyle - Greater Distance Travel - Sprawling Cities - Suburbs Growth of automobile industry led to roadway construction; required energy. Better roads - Higher speeds Higher speeds - Bigger faster cars = Bigger faster cars - Better roads

18 18 Role of The Automobile in 2000

19 19 Growth in the Use of Natural Gas Initially, natural gas was burned as a waste product at oil wells. Initially, natural gas was burned as a waste product at oil wells. – Before 1940, accounted for less than 10% of energy consumption in United States. By 1970, accounted for about 30% of energy needs. By 1970, accounted for about 30% of energy needs. In 2003 accounted for 25% of U.S. consumption. In 2003 accounted for 25% of U.S. consumption. – Primarily used for home heating and industrial purposes.

20 20

21 21

22 22

23 23

24 24 How does the US compare to others in overall energy use through 2002?

25 25 Among the technological challenges in using inanimate energy resources is the transmission of power; the production of electricity with electromagnetic induction, the transmission of electricity through copper wires, and the development of electric motors ultimately revolutionized the transmission of power Among the technological challenges in using inanimate energy resources is the transmission of power; the production of electricity with electromagnetic induction, the transmission of electricity through copper wires, and the development of electric motors ultimately revolutionized the transmission of power machines powered by electric motors could be sited almost anywhere, electric power supplanted horse-drawn and steam-powered street railways with the electric "trolley," it replaced gas for outdoor lighting, and it replaced kerosene lights and wood and coal stoves and heaters in homes machines powered by electric motors could be sited almost anywhere, electric power supplanted horse-drawn and steam-powered street railways with the electric "trolley," it replaced gas for outdoor lighting, and it replaced kerosene lights and wood and coal stoves and heaters in homes

26 26 Thomas Edison's direct current (DC) power system became the initial standard for distributed electricity, but it could not be easily transmitted over long distances, which Nicola Tesla's alternating current (AC) power system achieved Thomas Edison's direct current (DC) power system became the initial standard for distributed electricity, but it could not be easily transmitted over long distances, which Nicola Tesla's alternating current (AC) power system achieved AC power superseded DC power and made possible the development of large electrical generating plants sited long distances from customers AC power superseded DC power and made possible the development of large electrical generating plants sited long distances from customers By the early twentieth century, electricity had become the favored method for transmitting energy and led to the development of the tungsten filament for Edison's incandescent lamp and later the X-ray tube By the early twentieth century, electricity had become the favored method for transmitting energy and led to the development of the tungsten filament for Edison's incandescent lamp and later the X-ray tube

27 27 Electrical Energy Most electrical energy is produced as a result of burning fossil fuels. Most electrical energy is produced as a result of burning fossil fuels. Because electricity is easily transported and its uses are so varied, electricity is a major world energy source. Because electricity is easily transported and its uses are so varied, electricity is a major world energy source. – Industrialized nations have 20% of the worlds population, but use 60% of the worlds electricity. Per capita use in N. America is 25 times greater than that in less- developed countries. Per capita use in N. America is 25 times greater than that in less- developed countries.

28 28 World Electrical Energy Use

29 29 The Nuclear Age Marie Curie, whose work "on the spontaneous radiation emitted by uranium compounds" set the stage for subsequent discoveries on atomic structure and the intrinsic power of the atom Marie Curie, whose work "on the spontaneous radiation emitted by uranium compounds" set the stage for subsequent discoveries on atomic structure and the intrinsic power of the atom during the 1930s, Enrico Fermi focused on producing artificial radiation by bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons. during the 1930s, Enrico Fermi focused on producing artificial radiation by bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons. As the world went to war in the 1940s, Fermi and other physicists in Europe and America came to understand that a uranium atom split by a neutron would cause a self- perpetuating chain reaction of atom splitting that would release enormous energy As the world went to war in the 1940s, Fermi and other physicists in Europe and America came to understand that a uranium atom split by a neutron would cause a self- perpetuating chain reaction of atom splitting that would release enormous energy Nuclear fission, suggested possible military applications, and Fermi joined with Albert Einstein in the "Manhattan Project which achieved the first controlled nuclear chain reaction Nuclear fission, suggested possible military applications, and Fermi joined with Albert Einstein in the "Manhattan Project which achieved the first controlled nuclear chain reaction

30 30 The atomic bomb was used twice against Japan in 1945 The atomic bomb was used twice against Japan in 1945 In the wake of World War II, the United States created an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to oversee nuclear weapons development as well as to bring nuclear power to peaceful applications In the wake of World War II, the United States created an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to oversee nuclear weapons development as well as to bring nuclear power to peaceful applications industrialized nations everywhere constructed nuclear power plants to meet ever-multiplying demands for electric power industrialized nations everywhere constructed nuclear power plants to meet ever-multiplying demands for electric power The 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident in Pennsylvania empowered nuclear power opponents and, combined with the unresolved solution to the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste effectively ended new nuclear power plant construction in the United States The 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident in Pennsylvania empowered nuclear power opponents and, combined with the unresolved solution to the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste effectively ended new nuclear power plant construction in the United States In 1986 the meltdown at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine and subsequent widespread radiation poisoning, put Italy, Germany, and other countries on the path toward ending reliance on nuclear power In 1986 the meltdown at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine and subsequent widespread radiation poisoning, put Italy, Germany, and other countries on the path toward ending reliance on nuclear power

31 31 The Economics and Politics of Energy Use A correlation exists between energy and productivity. A correlation exists between energy and productivity. – Most industrial societies want to ensure a continuous supply of affordable energy. – The higher the price of energy, the more expensive goods and services become. – Subsidies help keep energy costs down.

32 32

33 33 Fuel Economy and Government Policy Price of gasoline determined by two factors: Price of gasoline determined by two factors: – Purchasing and processing crude oil. – Taxes Taxes in the U.S. represent less than 30% of retail gasoline price. Taxes in the U.S. represent less than 30% of retail gasoline price. 40% in Canada 40% in Canada 50-75% in Japan and Europe 50-75% in Japan and Europe Governments often charge road users to help build and repair roads by taxing fuel. Governments often charge road users to help build and repair roads by taxing fuel. – Can also discourage use via increases. – U.S. only raises 60% of monies needed for roads from fuel taxes. This tends to keep fuel costs low This tends to keep fuel costs low – Encourages consumption

34 34

35 35 Political and Economic Factors During the 1980s, energy costs in North America and Europe declined During the 1980s, energy costs in North America and Europe declined – less concern about energy consumption – oil ~ $40 / barrel – oil ~ $15 / barrel Factors determining energy use Factors determining energy use – Political Stability – Price of Oil – Others? The Importance of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries) The Importance of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries) - Twelve members – Control over 78% of worlds estimated oil reserves. – 1,000 billion barrels

36 36 Sources of US oil in 2003

37 37 Energy Consumption in 2003 Over half of world energy consumption is by the 25 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Over half of world energy consumption is by the 25 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). – Available Energy Sources Oil 38% Oil 38% Natural Gas26% Natural Gas26% Coal24% Coal24%

38 38 Changes in World Energy Consumption

39 39 Energy Consumption Trends Energy consumption behavior of most people is motivated by economics rather than a desire to wisely use energy resources. Energy consumption behavior of most people is motivated by economics rather than a desire to wisely use energy resources. Over the past several years, world oil prices have been extremely volatile. Over the past several years, world oil prices have been extremely volatile. – Oversupply – OPEC Actions – Persian Gulf War – Iraq War –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eabmsuEZPsk


Download ppt "1 Energy Usage: An Historical Perspective. 2 Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping the human condition Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google