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David Carroll, Research Associate. National survey of higher education graduates conducted since 1972 Current iteration is known as the Australian Graduate.

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Presentation on theme: "David Carroll, Research Associate. National survey of higher education graduates conducted since 1972 Current iteration is known as the Australian Graduate."— Presentation transcript:

1 David Carroll, Research Associate

2 National survey of higher education graduates conducted since 1972 Current iteration is known as the Australian Graduate Survey (AGS) Comprises: Graduate Destinations Survey (GDS) Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) or Postgraduate Research Experience Questionnaire (PREQ)

3 Graduates surveyed approximately four months after the completion of their studies Total of 119,447 responses received in 2008 (56.4 per cent response rate) Key findings disseminated through a series of annual research reports produced by GCA

4 Examination of work and study activities of new graduates Current AGS and time series Compares relative proportions of graduates in discrete categories (e.g. % in FTE vs. % seeking FTE) Postgraduate Destinations report also produced

5 Examination of earnings of recent higher education graduates Current AGS and time series Median starting salaries of bachelor degree graduates, along with comparative salary figures from other groups

6 Widely used for strategic decision making Reports focus on descriptive statistics Diverse readership meant keeping reports as accessible as possible Concern that additional analyses would limit their use as communication tools

7 How best to incorporate new analyses into these reports to complement and enhance the analyses contained within… Without reducing their usefulness as non- technical communication tools Graduate Salaries 2008 selected as a test case for the addition of new analyses Do they provide additional value? Possible within already tight timelines?

8 Three criteria for new analyses: Methodologically appropriate Complement and enhance Easily understood and interpreted Adjustment for Inflation Statistical Significance Testing

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10 Inflation refers to the sustained increase in the overall price level in an economy Inflation is caused by: Growth in the money supply (long term) Supply and demand pressures (short term) Important to consider impact of inflation when examining values of money over time

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12 Necessary to consider the real value of median starting salary to understand the practical implications for graduates. Calculated based on annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Dollars base = Dollars data (Annual CPI base / Annual CPI data )

13 This approach was chosen because: Familiar concept Widely accepted methodology Publicly available indices

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16 Emphasis in these reports placed on differences between groups of interest Descriptive statistics (of AGS sample) Can between group differences be inferred to exist in the overall graduate population? Significance tests incorporated into Graduate Salaries 2008 to address this question

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18 Non-normal distribution confirmed by graphical and statistical examination Selected tests needed to fit within existing report structure to ensure continuity Results (and their interpretation) needed to be meaningful to a wide audience

19 Mann-Whitney U (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum) Kruskal-Wallis Differences flagged as: Significant at the 5 per cent level (*) Significant at the 1 per cent level (**) Not statistically significant (n.s.) All p-values provided in an appendix

20 Results of these tests discussed in the report in practical terms: The largest difference in median salary by gender was in the field of optometry ($8,000), which was statistically significant at the 5 per cent level. This basically means that there is less than a one-in- twenty chance that this gender difference does not occur in the overall graduate population. (Adapted from Graduate Salaries 2008)

21 Statistical significance vs. practical significance

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23 State/Territory of employment Males ($, 000) Females ($, 000) Apparent difference in GSS ($) Diff. in GSS by gender NSW $5,000 WA $5,000 Qld $2,000 Vic $1,800 Tas $1,000 ACT $900 NT $100 SA45.0 $0

24 State/Territory of employment Males ($, 000) Females ($, 000) Apparent difference in GSS ($) Diff. in GSS by gender NSW $5,000** WA $5,000** Qld $2,000** Vic $1,800** Tas $1,000n.s. ACT $900n.s. NT $100n.s.

25 Field of education Diff. in GSS by gender Apparent difference in GSS ($) Field of education Diff. in GSS by gender Apparent difference in GSS ($) Earth Sciences $10,600Biological Sciences$1,600 Optometry$8,000Mathematics$1,500 Dentistry$6,000Social Sciences$1,500 Arch. & Building$5,000Veterinary Science$1,300 Art & Design$4,900Agricultural Science$1,000 Economics, Business$4,000Education$1,000 Medicine$3,000Engineering $1,000 Social Work $2,400Law$1,000 Computer Science$2,000Physical Sciences$900 Humanities$2,000Pharmacy$800 Paramedical Studies$2,000Accounting$0 Psychology$1,900 Female median GSS larger than male median GSS.

26 Field of education Diff. in GSS by gender Apparent difference in GSS ($) Field of education Diff. in GSS by gender Apparent difference in GSS ($) Earth Sciences n.s.$10,600Biological Sciencesn.s.$1,600 Optometry*$8,000Mathematicsn.s.$1,500 Dentistryn.s.$6,000Social Sciencesn.s.$1,500 Arch. & Building**$5,000Veterinary Sciencen.s.$1,300 Art & Design*$4,900Agricultural Sciencen.s.$1,000 Economics, Business**$4,000Education*$1,000 Medicine*$3,000Engineering n.s.$1,000 Social Work n.s.$2,400Lawn.s.$1,000 Computer Sciencen.s.$2,000Physical Sciencesn.s.$900 Humanities**$2,000Pharmacyn.s.$800 Paramedical Studies**$2,000 Psychologyn.s.$1,900 Female median GSS larger than male median GSS.

27 Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Pharmacy$13,500Economics, Business$7,000 Education$13,000Social Sciences$7,000 Art & Design$11,100Computer Science$6,500 Optometry$10,000Paramedical Studies$6,500 Humanities$9,500Agricultural Science$5,500 Accounting$9,400Mathematics$5,500 Psychology$9,000Biological Sciences$5,300 Arch. & Building$8,900Earth Sciences$5,000 Engineering$8,900Law$5,000 Dentistry$8,500Medicine$3,000 Physical Sciences$7,500Veterinary Science$0 Social Work$7,500 Aust. Govt, State Govt, Public Health, Prof. Pract. Ind./Com., Schools, Tert. Ed.

28 Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Pharmacy**$13,500Economics, Business**$7,000 Education**$13,000Social Sciences*$7,000 Art & Design**$11,100Computer Sciencen.s.$6,500 Optometryn.s.$10,000Paramedical Studies**$6,500 Humanities**$9,500Agricultural Sciencen.s.$5,500 Accounting**$9,400Mathematicsn.s.$5,500 Psychology**$9,000Biological Sciences**$5,300 Arch. & Building**$8,900Earth Sciencesn.s.$5,000 Engineering**$8,900Lawn.s.$5,000 Dentistryn.s.$8,500Medicine**$3,000 Physical Sciencesn.s.$7,500 Social Work**$7,500 Aust. Govt, State Govt, Public Health, Prof. Pract. Ind./Com., Schools, Tert. Ed.

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30 Graduate Destinations focus on relative proportions of graduates within categories Two proportion z-test proposed to examine two subgroups of interest: Proportion of graduates engaged in particular activities Proportion engaged in particular activities in different years

31 Graduates in full-time employment p1p1 p2p2 Sig.z-score Bachelor Honours * Bachelor Pass Bachelor Grad Entry * Bachelor Pass Masters Coursework * Masters Research Masters Coursework * G/PG Diploma Graduate Certificate * G/PG Diploma * Males * Females

32 Graduates in full-time employment p1p1 p2p2 Sig.z-score Bachelor Honours * Bachelor Pass n.s.0.70 Bachelor Grad Entry * Bachelor Pass n.s.0.65 Masters Coursework * Masters Research n.s.0.67 Masters Coursework * G/PG Diploma n.s.0.58 Graduate Certificate * G/PG Diploma ** * **2.87 Males * Females n.s.1.42

33 Kruskal-Wallis Test indicates that at least one pair of groups are different No multiple comparison tests for Kruskal- Wallis included in Graduate Salaries 2008 Recommended that readers compare medians to identify extreme groups (after Dytham, 2003) Considering adding multiple comparison tests in Graduate Salaries 2009

34 Multiple comparison procedure for Kruskal- Wallis when sample sizes are not equal Minimises Type I errors (falsely rejecting H 0 ) when performing multiple pairwise comparisons (Q statistic)

35 Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Pharmacy**$13,500Economics, Business**$7,000 Education**$13,000Social Sciences*$7,000 Art & Design**$11,100Computer Sciencen.s.$6,500 Optometryn.s.$10,000Paramedical Studies**$6,500 Humanities**$9,500Agricultural Sciencen.s.$5,500 Accounting**$9,400Mathematicsn.s.$5,500 Psychology**$9,000Biological Sciences**$5,300 Arch. & Building**$8,900Earth Sciencesn.s.$5,000 Engineering**$8,900Lawn.s.$5,000 Dentistryn.s.$8,500Medicine**$3,000 Physical Sciencesn.s.$7,500 Social Work**$7,500 Aust. Govt, State Govt, Public Health, Prof. Pract. Ind./Com., Schools, Tert. Ed.

36 Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Field of education Diff. in GSS by industry Apparent difference in GSS ($) Pharmacy**$13,500Economics, Business**$7,000 Education**$13,000Social Sciences*$7,000 Art & Design**$11,100Computer Sciencen.s.$6,500 Optometryn.s.$10,000Paramedical Studies**$6,500 Humanities**$9,500Agricultural Sciencen.s.$5,500 Accounting**$9,400Mathematicsn.s.$5,500 Psychology**$9,000Biological Sciences**$5,300 Arch. & Building**$8,900Earth Sciencesn.s.$5,000 Engineering**$8,900Lawn.s.$5,000 Dentistryn.s.$8,500Medicine**$3,000 Physical Sciencesn.s.$7,500 Social Work**$7,500 Aust. Govt, State Govt, Public Health, Prof. Pract. Ind./Com., Schools, Tert. Ed.

37 Industry Group RARA Aust. Govt Prof. Pract Public Health Tert. Ed State Govt Schools Ind./Com Q RBRB Ind. / Com. Schools State Govt Tert. Ed. Public Health Prof. Pract. Aust. Govt Industry Group

38 RARA Aust. Govt Prof. Pract Public Health Tert. Ed State Govt Schools Ind./Com Q RBRB Ind. / Com. Schools State Govt Tert. Ed. Public Health Prof. Pract. Aust. Govt Industry Group Q Crit = (p <.05; k = 7)

39 Industry Group RARA Aust. Govt Prof. Pract Public Health Tert. Ed State Govt Schools Ind./Com Q RBRB Ind. / Com. Schools State Govt Tert. Ed. Public Health Prof. Pract. Aust. Govt Industry Group Q Crit = (p <.05; k = 7)

40 Inflation adjustment permits salaries over time to be examined on a common base Practical implications for graduates Statistical significance tests allow for more reliable inferences to the overall population Even more robust and comprehensive understanding of graduate outcomes

41 David Carroll Graduate Careers Australia www.graduatecareers.com.au


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