Presentation on theme: "International Business"— Presentation transcript:
1 International Business Chapter SevenGovernmental Influence on Trade
2 Chapter ObjectivesTo realize the rationales for government policies that enhance and restrict tradeTo interpret the effects of pressure groups on trade policiesTo understand the comparison of protectionist rationales used in high-income countries with those used in low-income countries’ economiesTo comprehend the potential and actual effects of government intervention on the free flow of tradeTo understand the major means by which trade is restricted and regulatedTo grasp the business uncertainties and business opportunities created by government trade policies
3 IntroductionProtectionism refers to those government restrictions and incentives specifically designed to help a county’s domestic firms compete with foreign competitors at home and abroad.Governments intervene in the trade process to attain economic, social, and/or political objectives.Whenever governments impede the flow of imports and/or encourage the flow of exports, they simul-taneously provide direct and/or indirect subsidies for their domestic firms.Protectionist measures are likely to lead to retaliationby affected stakeholders.
4 Fig. 7.2: Physical and Societal Influences on Protectionism and Companies’ Competitive Environment
5 Fig. 7. 1: Import Market Shares of Clothing in the U. S Fig. 7.1: Import Market Shares of Clothing in the U.S. before and after the Multifiber Arrangement
6 Rationales for Government Intervention in Trade ECONOMIC RATIONALESNONECONOMIC RATIONALESPrevent unemploymentMaintain essential industriesProtect infant industriesDeal with unfriendly countriesPromote industrializationMaintain or extend spheres of influenceImprove position com-pared to other countriesPreserve national identity
7 Economic Rationales for Government Intervention: Prevent Unemployment By limiting imports, local jobs are retained as firms and consumers are forced to purchase domestically produced goods and services.Unless the protectionist country is relatively small, such measures are usually ineffective.Such measures are likely to lead to retaliation unless either the protectionist or the affected country is relatively small.Such measures may decrease export-related jobs because of (i) price increases for components or (ii) lower incomes abroad.Governments must carefully balance the costs of higher prices with the costs of unemployment and the displaced production that would result from freer trade.
8 Economic Rationales for Government Intervention: Protect Infant Industries Infant Industry Argument [Alexander Hamilton, 1792]:A government should temporarily shield emerging industries in which the country may ultimately possess a comparative advantage from international competition until its firms are able to compete in world markets.Hamilton reasoned that eventual competitiveness would resultfrom: • movement along the learning curve• the efficiency gains from achieving the economies of large-scale productionUltimately, the validity of the argument rests on the expectation that the future benefits of an internationally competitive industry will exceed the costs of the associated protectionist measures.
9 Economic Rationales for Government Intervention: Promote Industrialization Industrialization Argument:The development of national industrial output should be supported, even though domestic prices may not be competitive on the world market.• Terms of trade describes the quantity of imports that a given quantity of a country’s exports can buy.• Export-led development encourages national economic development by harnessing a country-specific advantage and building a vibrant manufacturing sector through the stimulation of exports.Many of today’s emerging economies emulate historical practices and use protectionism to spur local industrialization.[continued]
10 Supporters of the industrialization argument claim that: surplus workers can more easily increase manufacturing output than agricultural outputforeign investment inflows promote sustainable growthfluctuating prices are a major detriment to those economies that depend on just a few commoditiesdemand for and prices of raw materials and agricultural commodities do not rise as fast as the demand for and prices of finished goodsexport promotion, and possibly import substitution, lead to sustainable economic developmentindustrialization helps the nation-building process
11 Economic Rationales for Government Intervention: Improve Relative Economic Position Countries may impose trade restrictions to improve their relative competitive posi-tions. Their primary motivations are:• balance-of-payments adjustments• comparable access, i.e., “fairness”• leverage as a bargaining tool• price-control objectives[continued]
12 The comparable access argument, i. e The comparable access argument, i.e., “fairness,” promotes the idea that a country’s firms are entitled to the same access to foreign markets as foreign firms have to its market.Dumping refers to the practice of pricing exports below cost, or below their home-country prices, i.e., below their “fair market value.”The optimum-tariff theory claims that a foreign producer will lower its prices if the destination country places a tariff on its products. So long as the price is reduced by any amount, some shift in revenue goes to the importing country, and the tariff is deemed an optimum one.
13 Noneconomic Rationales for Government Intervention Maintenance of essential industriesEssential industry argument: a government applies restrictions to protect essential domestic industries (particularly defense) so that the country is not dependent on foreign sources of supplyPrevention of shipments to “unfriendly” countriesMaintenance or extension of spheres of influencePreservation of national identity
14 Instruments of Trade Control Instruments of trade control can:-directly limit the amount that can be traded-indirectly affect the amount traded by directly influencing pricesTariffs (also called duties) are taxes levied on (internationally) traded products.Nontariff barriers (NTBs) represent administrative regulations, policies, and procedures, i.e., quantitative and qualitative barriers, that directly or indirectly impede international trade.While tariff barriers directly affect prices and subsequently the quantity demanded, nontariff barriers may directly affect price and/or quantity.
16 Instruments of Trade Control: Tariffs Tariffs, i.e., taxes levied on (internationally) traded products, include:• exports tariffs, levied by the country of origin on exported products• transit tariffs, levied by a country through which goods pass en route to their final destination• import tariffs , levied by the country of destination on imported productsA tariff increases the delivered price of a product, and, at the higher price, the quantity demanded will be less.[continued]
17 • A specific duty is a tariff that is assessed on a per unit basis. • An ad valorem tariff is assessed as a percentage of the value of an item.If both a specific duty and an ad valorem tariff are assessed on the same product, it is known as a compound duty.While raw materials frequently enter industrial countries tariff free, an ad valorem tariff is often applied to the total value of manufactured goods. Critics argue that the effective tariff on the manufactured portion, i.e., the value-added portion, is higher than the published tariff.
18 Instruments of Trade Control: Nontariff Barriers—Direct Price Influences Subsidies: direct or indirect financial assistance from governments to their domestic firms to help them overcome market imperfections and thus make them more competitive in the marketplace.Aid and loans: tied aid and loans require that the recipient spend the funds in the donor countryCustoms valuation: determining the true value and/or origin of traded productsOther direct price influences: special fees, deposits, minimum price levels
19 Instruments of Trade Control: Nontariff Barriers—Quantity Controls Quota: a numerical limit on the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported in a given period of timeVoluntary export restraints (VERs): negotiated limitations of exports from one country to anotherEmbargo: an outright ban on imports from or exports to a particular countryBecause of the increase in the equilibrium price, a quota may increase per unit revenues for participants within the protected market.[continued]
20 “Buy local” legislation Specific permission requirements Import and export licensesForeign exchange controlsAdministrative delaysReciprocal requirementsBarterOffsetRestrictions on servicesEssentialityProfessional standardsImmigration
21 Dealing with Government Intervention Firms can deal with trade restrictions by:• moving operations to lower-cost countries• concentrating on market niches that attract less international competition• adopting internal innovations that lead to greater efficiency and/or superior products• trying to secure government protection
22 Implications/Conclusions When governments choose to impede the flow of imports and encourage the flow of exports, they simultaneously provide direct and/or indirect subsidies for their domestic industries.It is difficult to determine the real effects of trade barriers due to the likelihood of retaliation and the fact the imports and exports can both have positive effects.
23 Much government interference in the international trade process is motivated by political rather than economic factors.A company’s particular international strategy will determine the extent to which it might benefit from protectionist measures.