Presentation on theme: "MARKETS, EQUILIBRIUM, AND PRICES How do we know when the price is right?"— Presentation transcript:
MARKETS, EQUILIBRIUM, AND PRICES How do we know when the price is right?
Warm Up Think of a product you recently purchased, and write down the name of the product and the price you paid for it. Then answer these questions: 1. What are some of the reasons you were willing to buy the product at this price? 2. What are some of the reasons the seller was willing to sell the product at this price? 3. Do you think you paid the right price for this product? Why or why not?
What happens when demand meets supply? Market equilibrium In a market where consumers and producers are completely free to buy and sell goods and services, demand and supply work together to determine prices. The interaction of demand and supply drives prices to market equilibrium– the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. When supply matches demand, consumers and producers both come away satisfied.
Prices move to bring markets into balance Communication between consumers and producers Price set too high by a producer Consumer can try to bargain Consumer will look over goods and walk away Price set too low by a producer Early-bird consumers will buy up as much as possible These interactions will eventually establish the equilibrium price for the product.
Prices move to bring markets into balance Market price The price a willing consumer pays to a willing producer for the sale of a good or service. Markets are governed by the law of supply and demand Markets move to equilibrium predictably In a competitive free market, the law of supply and demand will together push the price of a good or service to a level where the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are equal.
What happens when the price isnt right? Equilibrium price The right price because it is the price that producers and consumers can agree on. Disequilibrium Occurs when the quantity demanded is no longer equal to the quantity supplied Results in either a shortage or a surplus.
When the price is too low, shortages result Excess demand The quantity demanded at a specific price exceeds the quantity supplied Examples Waiting in line for a video game release Sold out movie Consumers experience excess demand as a shortage To economists, excess demand is a sign that the price for a good or service is set too low.
When the price is too high, surpluses result Excess supply The quantity supplied at a specific price exceeds the quantity demanded. Producers experience excess supply as a surplus A surplus occurs when there are too few customers willing to pay what producers are asking for their goods.
Graphing excess demand and supply
The time it takes to reach equilibrium varies In a free market, surpluses and shortages are usually temporary. A producer can vary the prices they charge for goods and services until the price is right Would have to change menus, ads, or signs to adjust it. Whether prices change quickly or slowly, once they move toward equilibrium, shortages and surpluses start to disappear.
How do shifts in demand or supply affect markets? Anything that brings about a shift in the demand curve is a demand shifter. Loss of income Population spike Popular new fad Anything that brings about a shift in the supply curve is a supply shifter. Changes in the number of producers Changes in the cost of inputs
Three questions to ask about demand and supply shifts When an even causes the demand or supply curve to shift, the point of equilibrium changes. To analyze this, economists ask three questions: Does the event affect demand, supply, or both? Does the event shift the demand or supply curve to the right or left? What are the new equilibrium price and quantity, and how have they changed as a result of the event?
Analyzing the effect of a change in demand on equilibrium price. One of the most powerful factors that can influence market demand is changing consumer tastes. Imagine that blueberries have been labeled the new brain food, by experts. What will this do to the demand for blueberry smoothies?
Lets ask ourselves the 3 questions… Does this event affect demand, supply, or both? The research affects the demand because people think they will be smarter after consuming blueberries. Does the event shift the demand or supply curve to the right or the left? The event shifts the demand curve to the right.
What are the new equilibrium price and quantity?
Analyzing the effect of a change in supply on equilibrium prices Extreme weather conditions can often affect the supply market supply. Imagine that there is a drought in blueberry producing states. What will this do to the supply of blueberries?
Lets again ask ourselves the 3 questions… Does this event affect demand, supply, or both? Costs increase for suppliers, so the production of blueberry smoothies decreases, but the demand for smoothies does not change. Does the event shift the demand or supply curve to the right or left? Since the supply of blueberries is negatively affecting the supply of smoothies, the supply curve shifts to the right.
What are the new equilibrium price and quantity?
Analyzing the effect of changes in both demand and supply Two events happening simultaneously can have an effect on both demand and supply. Imagine that the book labeling the blueberry a miracle fruit becomes a bestseller AND that a major supermarket chain decides to open juice bars in most of its local stores
Lets ask ourselves the 3 questions… Do the events effect supply, demand, or both? Both. The book motivates people to buy more blueberry smoothies, increasing the quantity demanded at all prices. The juice bars will cause an increase in the number of producers, increasing the quantity of smoothies supplied at all prices. Do the events shift the demand or supply curve to the right or to the left? Because both of the events are increasing demand and supply, both of the curves will shift to the right.
What are the new equilibrium price and quantity, and how have they changed as a result of the events?