Presentation on theme: "Supply and Demand The model that illustrates how a competitive markets works."— Presentation transcript:
Supply and Demand The model that illustrates how a competitive markets works
Basic Concepts Quantity demanded- the amount of a good or service consumer are willing and able to buy at different prices. Demand Curve- Shows the relationship between quantity demanded and price. Quantity Supplied- The actual amount of a good or service producers are willing to sell at some specific price. Supply Curve- Shows the relationship between quantity supplied and price.
Key Concepts A shift of the demand or supply curve is different from a movement ALONG the demand or supply curve. Price Quantity A shift of the demand curve.. Is not the same as a movement along the demand curve P1P1 P2P2 As Price Decreases Quantity Demanded Increases Q1Q1 Q2Q2 A change in quantity demanded or supplied is due to a change in price. Depending on the price, the quantity demanded or quantity supplied will be different.
Changes in Demand and Supply An increase in demand or supply is shown by a rightward shift of the curve. While a decrease in demand or supply is shown by a leftward shift of the curve. When either demand or supply increases (either curve shifts) the price remains the same but quantity demanded or supplied changes. Increase in demand Decrease in demand Q1Q1 Q3Q3 Q2Q2 Q1Q1 Q3Q3 Q2Q2 Decrease in supply Increase in supply
Factors that Shift the Demand Curve Five Principle Factors 1.Changes in the price of related goods or services. 2.Changes in income. 3.Changes in taste. 4.Changes in expectations. 5.Changes in the number of consumers. Demand *NEGATIVE SLOPE* # $ Factors that Shift the Supply Curve Five factors 1.Changes in input prices 2.Changes in technology 3.Changes in the number of producers 4.Changes in the price of related goods or services 5.Changes in expectations Supply *POSITIVE SLOPE* # $
Substitutes vs. Compliments There are substitute and complimentary goods. Two goods are substitutes if a rise in the price of one of the goods leads to an increase in the demand for the other good. Two goods are compliments if a rise in the price of one good leads to a decrease in the demand for the other good or service. Penut butter and Jelly
Normal Goods and Inferior Goods Income change – Normal goods and Inferior goods When individuals have more income they are normally more likely to purchase a good at any given price The demand for Normal Goods increases as income increases. (a Rightward shift of the demand curve) Goods for which demand decreased when income rises are know as Inferior goods. Normal Good or
Taste and Preferences People have certain preferences and tastes that determine what they want to consume. When taste change in favor of a good, more people want to buy it at any given price, so the demand curve shifts to the right. In the other case when taste change against a good, fewer people want to buy something at a given price, so the demand curve shifts to the left
Changes in Expectations and in Number of Consumers Expectations of a future drop in price will lead to a decrease in demand today. On the other hand, expectations of a future rise in price are likely to cause an increase in demand today Expected changes in income can also lead to changes in demand – If an individual expects his income to rise in the future, he will most likely borrow money today and increase his demand for certain goods. – If an individual expects his income to fall in the future, he will instead save today and reduce your demand for goods. The change in Number of Consumers is quite simple. – If the number of consumers of a certain good rises then the demand for that good or service increases – If the number of consumers of a certain good falls then the demand for that good or service decreases
Factors that Shift the Supply Curve Five factors 1.Changes in input prices 2.Changes in technology 3.Changes in the number of producers 4.Changes in the price of related goods or services 5.Changes in expectations Supply *POSITIVE SLOPE* # $
SUPPLY DECREASES IF… If the price to of an input to produce a good raises If the price of a substitute used to produce a good raises If the price of a compliment in production decreases If the price of an good supplied is expected to raise in the future If the number of producers falls SUPPLY INCREASES IF… If the price of an input to produce a good decreases If the price of a substitute in production falls If the price of a compliment in production raises If the technology used to produce a good improves If the price of a good supplied is expected to fall in the future If the number of produces rises S2S2 S1S1 # $ S1S1 # $ S2S2
Supply and Demand at Equilibrium Price Quantity Supply Demand Equilibrium Price Equilibrium Quantity Equilibrium At equilibrium no individual is better off doing something different. The price at which the quantity demanded of a good equals the quantity supplied of that good The quantity of that good bought and sold at E price
Question Which of the following could most likely cause the leftward shift of an industry's supply curve? A)One of the industry's firms discovers a new technology that aids in Production. B) The price of a necessary input declines for some firms in the industry. C) Consumer purchasing power rises considerably. E) The government levies a new tax on consumers Correct answer is: choice D D) Several of the industry's firms shut down operations This answer is correct because after the industrys firms shut down, supply will decrease Which is represented by a leftward shift of the supply curve
Question Which of the following would most likely shift the demand curve for a good to the right? A)The government grants a subsidy to producers of the product. B)New technology makes production quicker and easier. C)The wage rate for the producers manufactures increases. D)The company selling the product cuts the price by 25% E) Consumers expect the price of the good to raise soon. Correct answer: Choice E This is the correct answer because its the only choice that guaranties a shift of the demand curve. All the other choices would cause a shift in the supply curve.
Question In general, technological improvements and industrial innovation will cause A)The productivity of workers to decrease B)The supply curve for the industry to shift C)The demand curve for the industry to shift D)A movement along the industry supply curve E)A movement along the industry demand curve Correct answer is: choice B This is correct because a change in technology is one of the non price factors that shift a firms supply curve.
Other Concepts The supply and demand curves are seen everywhere. Its also a common concept that determines the optimal point of where markets should produce a good. And also inefficiencies within a market. Price Quantity Supply Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus Efficiency of Markets Price Quantity Supply MSC O P MSC P OPT P MKT Q OPT Q MKT Negative Externalities
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