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THEORY OF DEMAND. INTRODUCTION How much to produce and what price to charge? Factors determining demand for a product. Explores the relationship between.

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Presentation on theme: "THEORY OF DEMAND. INTRODUCTION How much to produce and what price to charge? Factors determining demand for a product. Explores the relationship between."— Presentation transcript:

1 THEORY OF DEMAND

2 INTRODUCTION How much to produce and what price to charge? Factors determining demand for a product. Explores the relationship between price and demand for a product. Examines likely impact of the potential factors that influence its demand.

3 WHAT IS DEMAND? The quantity of a product consumers are willing and able to buy at different prices in a specified time period. Types of Demand - Direct and derived demands -Individual and market demand -Recurring and replacement -Complementary and competing -New and replacement demands

4 DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND Price of Product Income of Consumer Price of Related Good Tastes and Preferences Advertising Consumers expectation of future Income and Price Growth of Economy Seasonal conditions Population

5 DEMAND SCHEDULE It shows the price and output relationship. Tabular representation of price and demand.

6 DEMAND CURVE The geometrical representation of demand schedule is called the demand curve.

7 LAW OF DEMAND As the price of a good rises, quantity demanded of that good falls. As the price of a good falls, quantity demanded of that good rises. Ceteris paribus.

8 DEMAND FUNCTION When we express the relationship between demand and its determinant mathematically, the relationship is known as demand function. The demand for product X can be written in functional form as- Dx= f (Px, Y, Po, T, A, Ef, N )

9 EXCEPTIONS TO THE LAW OF DEMAND Inferior Goods Snob Appeal Demonstration Effect Future Expectation of Prices Insignificant proportion of income spent Goods with no Substitutes

10 CHANGE IN DEMAND VS. CHANGE IN QUANTITY DEMANDED A shift of the entire demand curve to a new position is called change in demand. Changes in non-price determinants of demand.

11 QUANTITY DEMANDED Fluctuations in price, another determinant of demand, cause movement along the demand curve.

12 Why the demand curve slope downwards? Law of diminishing marginal utility. Income effect. Substitution effect. New consumers. Multiple use of commodity.

13 ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Elasticity of demand is defined as the responsiveness of the quantity of a good to changes in one of the variables on which demand depends- Price of the commodity Income of the Consumer Various other factor DEFINATION-The elasticity of demand measures the response of the demand for the commodity to change in price.

14 PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND The price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price.

15 PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Point Definition Arc Definition

16 Perfectly Inelastic Demand: Elasticity Equals 0 city of Demand Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning $5 4 Quantity Demand An increase in price leaves the quantity demanded unchanged. Price

17 Inelastic Demand: Elasticity Is Less Than 1 Quantity 0 $5 90 Demand 1. A 22% increase in price... Price leads to an 11% decrease in quantity demanded

18 Unit Elastic Demand: Elasticity Equals 1 Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning leads to a 22% decrease in quantity demanded. Quantity Price $ A 22% increase in price... Demand

19 Elastic Demand: Elasticity Is Greater Than 1 Demand Quantity Price $ A 22% increase in price leads to a 67% decrease in quantity demanded.

20 Perfectly Elastic Demand: Elasticity Equals Infinity Quantity 0 Price $4 Demand 2. At exactly $4, consumers will buy any quantity. 1. At any price above $4, quantity demanded is zero. 3. At a price below $4, quantity demanded is infinite.

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