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Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply 29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply 29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply 29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Aggregate Demand Real GDP desired at each price level Inverse relationship Real balances effect Interest effect Foreign purchases effect LO1 29-2

3 Aggregate Demand Real domestic output, GDP Price level AD LO

4 Changes in Aggregate Demand Determinants of aggregate demand Shift factors affecting C, I, G, X n 2 components involved Change in one of the determinants Multiplier effect LO1 29-4

5 Changes in Aggregate Demand Real domestic output, GDP Price level AD 1 AD 3 AD 2 LO

6 Consumer Spending Consumer wealth Household borrowing Consumer expectations Personal taxes LO1 29-6

7 Investment Spending Real interest rates Expected returns Expectations about future business conditions Technology Degree of excess capacity Business taxes LO1 29-7

8 Government Spending Government spending increases Aggregate demand increases (as long as interest rates and tax rates do not change) More transportation projects Government spending decreases Aggregate demand decreases Less military spending LO1 29-8

9 Net Export Spending National income abroad Exchange rates Dollar depreciation Dollar appreciation LO1 29-9

10 Aggregate Supply Total real output produced at each price level Relationship depends on time horizon Immediate short run Short run Long run LO

11 AS: Immediate Short Run Real domestic output, GDP Price level AS ISR QfQf Immediate-short-run aggregate supply P1P1 0 LO

12 Aggregate Supply: Short Run Real domestic output, GDP Price level 0 QfQf AS Aggregate supply (short run) LO

13 Aggregate Supply: Long Run Real domestic output, GDP Price level AS LR QfQf 0 Long-run aggregate supply LO

14 Changes in Aggregate Supply Determinants of aggregate supply Shift factors Collectively position the AS curve Changes raise or lower per-unit production costs LO

15 Changes in Aggregate Supply Real domestic output, GDP Price level AS 1 AS 3 AS 2 0 LO

16 Input Prices Domestic resource prices Labor Capital Land Prices of imported resources Imported oil Exchange rates LO

17 Productivity Real output per unit of input Increases in productivity reduce costs Decreases in productivity increase costs LO2 Per-unit production cost = total input cost total output Productivity = total output total inputs 29-17

18 Legal-Institutional Environment Legal changes alter per-unit costs of output Taxes and subsidies Extent of government regulation LO

19 Equilibrium Real domestic output, GDP (billions of dollars) Price level (index numbers) a b AD AS Real Output Demanded (Billions) Price Level (Index Number) Real Output Supplied (Billions) $506108$ LO

20 AD Increases: Demand-Pull Inflation Real domestic output, GDP Price level AD 1 AS P1P1 P2P2 Q2Q2 Q1Q1 QfQf AD 2 0 LO

21 Decreases in AD: Recession Real domestic output, GDP Price level AD 1 AS P1P1 P2P2 Q1Q1 Q 2 QfQf AD 2 c a b 0 LO

22 Decreases in AD: Recession Prices are downwardly inflexible Fear of price wars Menu costs Wage contracts Efficiency wages Minimum wage law LO

23 Decreases in AS: Cost-Push Inflation Real domestic output, GDP Price level AD AS 1 P1P1 P2P2 Q1Q1 QfQf AS 2 a b 0 LO

24 Increases in AS: Full-Employment Real domestic output, GDP Price level AD 1 AS 2 P1P1 P2P2 Q 2 Q1Q1 AS 1 b AD 2 c P3P3 Q3Q3 a 0 LO

25 Impact of Oil Prices Diminished? 1970s Reduced AS and negative GDP gap Cost-push inflation Rising unemployment 2000s Core inflation steady Use 50% less oil and gas today Federal Reserve more vigilant 29-25


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