Presentation on theme: "Revenue Accounting Issues For Royalty Owners Donald A. Phend, CPA Phend & Company, LLC 8500 W. Bowles Ave., Suite 301 Littleton, CO 80123 (303) 298-7908."— Presentation transcript:
Revenue Accounting Issues For Royalty Owners Donald A. Phend, CPA Phend & Company, LLC 8500 W. Bowles Ave., Suite 301 Littleton, CO (303) Phone (303) Fax
Objectives Gain a basic understanding of how oil and gas is valued for royalty payment calculations. Basic tips royalty owners can use to determine if deductions are being taken from their royalty payment. Current issues affecting Colorado Royalty Owners
Accounting Terms – Oil BBLBarrel – 42 US Gallons BS&WBasic Sediment and Water, an analysis of contaminants in oil GravityViscosity of oil – higher gravity is thinner and usually more valuable
Accounting Terms - Gas MCFMeasurement of Volume (1,000 cubic feet at standard temperature and pressure) MMBTUMeasure of heating content of gas ChromatographTheoretical content of various liquids (Gallons per MCF)
Accounting Terms – Gas Pooled Accounting – All wells in pool receive same valuation for gas and liquids – Pool can be various definitions, Field Geographic Area All wells going to a specific plant, etc.
Accounting Terms - Gas Netback Method – Deductions reduce stated value of gas, rather than being shown as a separate deduction – Example – Sales Price $3.15 MMBTU – Deductions (0.15) MMBTU – Netback Price $3.00 MMBTU – Typically the Netback Price will be shown on royalty check detail
Oil Valuation First step: measure the oil sold – Run Ticket Method High and low tank measurements manually recorded when oil is run (sold) into tank truck – LACT Meter (Lease Automatic Custody Transfer) Automatically records volume transferred (sold) to pipeline connection
Oil Valuation Second step: Determine quality of oil – Sample taken (using oil thief device) for analysis Gravity BS&W- Basic Sediment and Water
Pricing Calculation Posted Price – Purchasers publish a daily or monthly field price Spot Price – Based on market Purchase contract may specify + or – from the above referenced prices
Issue for Royalty Owner Is the price an arms-length price? Is posted price (if related party) truly a representative price for that area and time?
Gas Valuation First step: Measure the gas sold – Paper chart meter – Electronic meter
Paper Chart Meter
Gas Valuation Second Step: Determine quality of gas: – Sample taken for analysis: BTU Content – Heating content of gas sample Content Analysis (Chromatograph) – Content of various potential liquids contained in gas sample
Gas Analysis Report Heating Content MMBTU / MCF1.267
Theoretical Liquid Content (Chromatograph) Gallons per MCF Ethane3.382 Propane1.383 Isobutane0.256 Normal Butane0.486 Isopentane0.194 Normal Pentane0.170 Hexane0.342
Physical Flow of Gas and Liquids Wells Gathering System Field Compressor Gas Plant Unprocessed Gas End User Processed Gas Liquids Market Pipeline
Who Processes Gas? Independent processing companies provide processing for a fee Some large operators may have their own gas plants
Why Process Gas? The raw gas at the wellhead may not meet pipeline specifications Too high heating content (MMBTU/MCF ) Impurities (water, CO2, H2S)
Why Process Gas? Additional Revenue Liquids sell at a premium price. At times, some liquids command 2X the price per MMBTU as residue (processed) gas.
Gas Processing Agreement
Agreement between Producer (Well Operator) and Processor (Gas Plant) Defines terms and fees for processing gas Various types include – Percentage of Proceeds (POP) – Keep Whole – Fixed Fee
Example of POP Contract Producer receives 80% of sales proceeds for processed gas Producer receives 60% of sales proceeds for NGLs Producer pays gathering fee of 10 cents MCF Processor may use without cost 3% of producers gas for compressor and plant fuel Producer pays 5 cents/gallon frac fee
POP Fees Liquids 40% Processed Gas 20% Wells Gathering System Field Compressor Gas Plant Unprocessed Gas End User Processed Gas Liquids Market Pipeline
Gathering Fees Wells Gathering System Field Compressor Gas Plant Unprocessed Gas End User Processed Gas Liquids Market Pipeline
Fuel (3% of Volume) Wells Gathering System Field Compressor Gas Plant Unprocessed Gas End User Processed Gas Liquids Market Pipeline
Frac Fee (5 Cents / Gallon) Wells Gathering System Field Compressor Gas Plant Unprocessed Gas End User Processed Gas Liquids Market Pipeline
Effect of Netback Method You cant see all of the deductions being taken by looking at your revenue check detail. Some of the deductions may be buried in the artificial lower price.
Why is Netback Important? Producers often use the Netback price they receive from the processors as a starting point to pay royalty. Note, these deductions may or may not be appropriate to charge to royalty owners. – This is a legal issue, not an accounting issue.
Calculate Theoretical Gallons Gallons Ethane x 1000 =3382 Propane x 1000 =1383 Isobutane x 1000 =256 Normal Butane x 1000 =486 Isopentane x 1000 =194 Normal Pentane x 1000 =170 Hexane x 1000 =342
Why are Theoretical Gallons Important It is used to allocate the total Actual Gallons produced at the plant to each well, to determine payment to producer Theoretical Gal Actual plant gal XYour Well Theoretical Gal All Wells in Plant
Allocation to Well In other words, if the your well has 5% of the total theoretical plant production of Ethane, it will get credit for 5% of the actual sales of ethane. Note that this sales value will be net of the 40% POP fee.
Valuation of Ethane Actual Gallons of Ethane Allocated to your well 3, Price of Ethane(Gal) $ Gross Value of Ethane to Well $1, Less POP (40%) (537.34) Net Paid Producer
Calculate Gross Value
Calculate Net Value
Valuation on Check Net Value After Deduction$5, MCF at Wellhead 1,000 Calculated Price Per MCF$5.59
Other Issues Volumetric Loss – Often known as Fuel Lost and Unaccounted or FL&U) – Processor only pays on net volume sold at tailgate of plant – Can be easily calculated
Volumetric Loss MMBTU at Wellhead Less MMBTU in All Products Equals FL&U Note that liquids are stated in gallons, but there are conversion factors to determine MMBTU content
Volumetric Loss In this example FL&U was calculated as approximately MMBTU Expressed in terms of residue gas this is – MMBTU X $5.59/MMBTU = $127.72
Summary Gross Value Sold at Plant$8, Plus Value of FL&U Value At Wellhead 8, Less – POP(2,401.34) – Gathering (100.00) – Frac (195.96) – FL&U (127.72) Net$5, Percentage of Net to Gross66%
Summary 10% Royalty Owner Effect Gross value of 10%$ Net Actually Received Royalty Owners share of deducts$273.51
Keep Whole Contract Gas Processor pays Producer for the total MMBTU produced at the wellhead Price is based on the sales price of residue gas only Gas Processor keeps the enhanced value of the MMBTU that was converted to liquids
Keep Whole Contract These contracts may also have an allowance for fuel, (for example, 3%) in which case the Gas Processor only pays on a net percentage of the wellhead volume Other fees may also be charged by Gas Processor
Keep Whole Contract Typically the Producer will begin with the Keep Whole amount they receive from the Gas Processor, when beginning to calculate royalty payments Producer may also add other charges when calculating royalty payment
Keep Whole Contract Effect on royalty owner payments – Royalty owner does not receive benefit for higher value of liquid products – Royalty owner may be receiving payment on a volume net of fuel allowances – Royalty owner may be charged other deductions by the operator – Note that the above items may, or may not, be evidenced on the royalty check detail
Fixed Fee Contract Gas Processor charges a per unit of volume fee to the producer for providing processing services Producers may calculate royalty payments net of this fee
Other Issues Arms-Length Pricing – It is possible for a processing company to sell to a marketing affiliate at a lower than market price, and settle with producer on this basis. – Strategy - request documentation for first arms- length sale
Strategies for Royalty Owners Look for slight variations of price for different wells (if you have more than one well) – This is indicative that various products are being allocated differently based on wells theoretical content. – While this isnt proof that netback pricing is occurring, it is at least a place to start.
Strategies for Royalty Owners If well was involved in a class action settlement, the calculation methodology for future deductions may be available in the settlement agreement. This might be interesting for informational purposes, but you may be bound by the settlement agreement (not intended as legal advice!)
Strategies for Royalty Owners Request copies of any Gas Processing Agreements and Plant Statements for some sample months The Plant Statements show basically the same calculations as in the prior example, and if you are good with numbers, you can probably figure it out, or at least make an estimate Down side is I have found most companies are reluctant to provide this type of info absent legal pressure
Strategies for Royalty Owners If you know your gas is being processed, and You have access to index prices in your area for pipeline standard gas Then you should expect that the blended value you receive should be higher than the pipeline standard gas, due to the enhanced value of the liquids (assuming no deductions)
Strategies for Royalty Owners Some royalty checks are becoming more descriptive If they display a column of Deducts, ask Royalty Relations Department for an explanation Also ask them if they use Netback Pricing and see if they give you an answer
Strategies for Royalty Owners Compare notes with friends and neighbors who may have royalties with other companies in the same geographic area Significant variances in stated prices may merit further investigation