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Chapter Twelve MARKUPS AND MARKDOWNS: PERISHABLES AND BREAKEVEN ANALYSIS Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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LU 12-1: Markups Based on Cost (100%) 1. Calculate dollar markup and percent markup on cost. 2. Calculate selling price when you know cost and percent markup on cost. 3. Calculate cost when dollar markup at percent markup on cost are known. 4. Calculate cost when you know the selling price and percent markup on cost. LEARNING UNIT OBJECTIVES 12-2

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LEARNING UNIT OBJECTIVES 12-3 LU 12-2: Markup Based on Selling Price (100%) 1. Calculate dollar markup and percent markup on selling price. 2. Calculate selling price when dollar markup and percent markup on selling price are known. 3. Calculate selling price when cost and percent markup on selling price are known. 4. Calculate cost when selling price and percent markup on selling price are known. 5. Convert from percent markup on cost to percent markup on selling price, and vice versa. 1. Calculate markdowns; compare markdowns and markups. 2. Price perishable items to cover spoilage loss. LU 12-3: Markdowns and Perishables

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LEARNING UNIT OBJECTIVES 12-4 LU 12-4: Breakeven Analysis 1. Calculate contribution margin. 2. Calculate breakeven point.

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TERMINOLOGY 12-5 Selling Price - The price retailers charge customers. Cost - The price retailers pay to a manufacturer or supplier to bring goods into the store. Markup, Margin, or Gross Profit - The difference between the cost of bringing the goods into the store and the selling price of the goods. Operating Expenses or Overhead - The regular expenses of doing business, such as wages, rent, utilities, insurance, and advertising. Net Profit or Net Income - The profit remaining after subtracting the cost of bringing the goods into the store and the operating expenses from the sale of the goods (including any returns or adjustments).

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BASIC SELLING PRICE FORMULA 12-6 Assume Gap plans to sell hooded fleece jackets for $23 that cost them $18. The markup (M) is a dollar amount, or a dollar markup.

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MARKUPS BASED ON COST (100%) 12-7 Cost + Markup = Selling price 100% 27.78% 127.78% Dollar markup is the portion Percent markup on cost is the rate Cost is 100% - the Base

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CALCULATING DOLLAR MARKUP AND PERCENT MARKUP ON COST 12-8 Gap buys fleece jackets for $18. They plan to sell them for $23. What is Gaps markup? What is the percent markup on cost? Dollar markup = Selling price -- Cost Percent markup on cost = Dollar markup Cost Check Selling price = Cost + Markup Cost (B) = Dollar markup Percent markup on cost $5.2778 $5 $18 $ 5 = $23 -- $18 $23 = $18 +.2778($18) $23 = $18 + $5 = 27.78% or.2778 = $18

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CALCULATING SELLING PRICE WHEN YOU KNOW COST AND PERCENT MARKUP ON COST 12-9 Mels Furniture bought a lamp that cost $100. To make Mels desired profit, he needs a 65% markup on cost. What is Mels dollar markup? What is his selling price? S = C + M S = $100 +.65($100) S = $100 + $65 S = $165 Dollar Markup Selling Price

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CALCULATING COST WHEN YOU KNOW SELLING PRICE AND PERCENT MARKUP ON COST 12-10 Jill Sport, owner of Sports, Inc., sells tennis rackets for $50. To make her desired profit, Jill needs a 40% markup on cost. What do the tennis rackets cost Jill? What is the dollar markup? S (Selling Price) = C (Cost) + M (Markup) $50 = C +.40(C) $50 = 1.40C 1.40 1.40 $35.71 = C M = S - C M = $50 - $35.71 M = $14.29 Calculate the cost: Calculate the dollar markup:

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MARKUPS BASED ON SELLING PRICE (100%) 12-11 Cost + Markup = Selling price 78.26% + 21.74% = 100% Dollar ($) markup is the portion (P) Selling price is 100% - the base (B) Percent (%) markup on selling price is the rate (R)

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CALCULATING DOLLAR MARKUP AND PERCENT MARKUP ON SELLING PRICE 12-12 The cost to Gap for a hooded fleece jacket is $18; the store then plans to sell them for $23. What is Gaps dollar markup? What is its percent markup on selling price? Dollar markup = Selling price -- Cost $ 5 = $23 -- $18 Percent markup on selling price = Dollar markup Selling price Check Selling price = Cost + Markup 23 = 18 +.2174($23) $23 = $18 + $5 $5 = $23.2174 Selling price (B) = Dollar markup (P) Percent markup on SP (R) $5 = 21.74 % $23

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COMPARE MARKUP ON COST VERSUS MARKUP ON SELLING PRICE Percent Markup Based on Cost Percent Markup Based on Selling Price $5 = 21.74 % $23 $5 = 27.78 % $18 Be careful to substitute the correct value – selling price or cost – into the denominator. 12-13

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CALCULATING SELLING PRICE WHEN YOU KNOW COST AND PERCENT MARKUP ON SELLING PRICE 12-14 Mels Furniture bought a lamp that cost $100. To make Mels desired profit, he needs a 65% markup on selling price. What are Mels selling price and his dollar markup? M = S -- C M = $285.71 -- $100 M = $185.71 S = $100 +.65S -.65S.35S = $100.35.35 S = $285.71 S (Selling price) = C (Cost) + M (Markup) Calculate the selling price: Calculate the dollar markup:

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CALCULATING COST WHEN YOU KNOW SELLING PRICE AND PERCENT MARKUP ON SELLING PRICE 12-15 Jill Sport, owner of Sports, Inc., sells tennis rackets for $50. To make her desired profit, Jill needs a 40% markup on selling price. What is the dollar markup? What do the tennis rackets cost Jill? S (Selling price) = C (Cost) + M (Markup) $50 = C +.40($50) $50 = C + $20 - $20 $30 = C Dollar Markup

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MARKUP BASED ON COST VERSUS MARKUP BASED ON SELLING PRICE (TABLE 12.1) 12-16

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CONVERSION 12-17 Formula for Converting Percent Markup on Cost to Percent Markup on Selling Price: Percent markup on cost 1 + Percent markup on cost.2778 = 21.74% 1 +.2778 Formula for Converting Percent Markup on Selling Price to Percent Markup on Cost: Percent markup on selling price 1 -- Percent markup on selling price.2174 = 27.78% 1 --.2174

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MARKDOWNS 12-18 Kmart marked down an $18.00 video to $10.80. Calculate the dollar markdown and the markdown percent. $18.00 -- $10.80 = $7.20 markdown Dollar markdown = $7.20 = 40% Selling price (original) $18.00 Markdown percent = Dollar markdown Selling price (original) Dollar markup = Original selling price – New selling price Example:

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PRICING PERISHABLE ITEMS 12-19 Audreys Bake Shop baked 20 dozen bagels. Audrey expects 10% of the bagels to become stale and not salable. The bagels cost Audrey $1.20 per dozen. Audrey wants a 60% markup on cost. What should Audrey charge for each dozen of bagels so she will make her profit? TC (Total Cost) = 20 dozen x $1.20 = $24.00 TS (Total Sales) = TC + TM (Total Markup) TS = $24 +.60($24) TS = $24 + $14.40 TS = $38.40 20 dozen X.10 = 2 dozen $38.40 = $2.13 18 Selling price per dozen 20 -- 2 Total dollar markup Total selling price

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CALCULATING A CONTRIBUTION MARGIN (CM) 12-20 Assume Jones Company produces pens that have a selling price (S) of $2.00 and a variable cost (VC) of $.80. We calculate the contribution margin (CM) as follows. CM = $2.00 (S) -- $.80 (VC) CM = $1.20 Contribution margin (CM) = Selling price (S) – Variable cost (VC) Example:

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CALCULATING A BREAKEVEN POINT (BE) 12-21 Jones Company produces pens. The company has a fixed cost (FC) of $60,000. Each pen sells for $2.00 with a variable cost (VC) of $.80 per pen. Breakeven point (BE) = Fixed costs (FC) Contribution margin (CM) Breakeven point (BE) = $60,000 (FC) = 50,000 units (pens) $2.00 (S) - $.80 (VC) Example: At 50,000 units (pens), Jones Company is just covering its costs. Each unit after 50,000 brings in a profit of $1.20 (CM).

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