Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Overview of Drug Purchasing & Pricing Lanny T. Cross ADAP Program Specialist.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Overview of Drug Purchasing & Pricing Lanny T. Cross ADAP Program Specialist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of Drug Purchasing & Pricing Lanny T. Cross ADAP Program Specialist

2 Drug Pricing Schedule Hypothetical Drug = $ AWP Price Dispensing Fee (e.g., $3.50) Pharmacy Discount Rate AWP WAC AMP Best Price 340B (PHS) $ $100 $88 $80 $79 $70 $67

3 Drug Terms – 1 Dispensing Fee: The charge for the professional services provided by the pharmacist. Dispensing Fee: The charge for the professional services provided by the pharmacist. Average Wholesale Price (AWP): A national average of prices charged by wholesalers to pharmacies, calculated by pricing services. Average Wholesale Price (AWP): A national average of prices charged by wholesalers to pharmacies, calculated by pricing services. Pharmacy Discount Price: The price paid to the Pharmacy by a program (i.e., ADAP, Medicaid) for drugs. Pharmacy Discount Price: The price paid to the Pharmacy by a program (i.e., ADAP, Medicaid) for drugs. Wholesale Acquisition Cost (WAC): Sometimes called List Price. WAC is the price set by manufacturers. Wholesale Acquisition Cost (WAC): Sometimes called List Price. WAC is the price set by manufacturers.

4 Drug Terms – 2 Average Manufacturer Price (AMP): The average price paid to a manufacturer by wholesalers for drugs distributed to retail pharmacies. A confidential price. Average Manufacturer Price (AMP): The average price paid to a manufacturer by wholesalers for drugs distributed to retail pharmacies. A confidential price. Best Price: The lowest price paid to a manufacturer for a brand name drug, taking into account rebates, chargebacks, discounts or other pricing adjustments. Best Price: The lowest price paid to a manufacturer for a brand name drug, taking into account rebates, chargebacks, discounts or other pricing adjustments. 340B (PHS) Price: The maximum price that manufacturers can charge covered entities participating in the Public Health Services 340B drug discount program. 340B (PHS) Price: The maximum price that manufacturers can charge covered entities participating in the Public Health Services 340B drug discount program. Wholesaler Discount: Discount offered by wholesalers to direct purchasers for large volume and prompt payment. Wholesaler Discount: Discount offered by wholesalers to direct purchasers for large volume and prompt payment.

5 Drug Terms - 3 Federal Upper Limit Price (FUL): Federally established maximum price for a drug product if there are three (or more) generic versions of the product rated therapeutically equivalent (A-rated) and at least three suppliers. Federal Upper Limit Price (FUL): Federally established maximum price for a drug product if there are three (or more) generic versions of the product rated therapeutically equivalent (A-rated) and at least three suppliers. Acquisition Cost (AC): The net cost of a drug paid by a pharmacy and includes discounts, rebates, chargebacks and other adjustments. Acquisition Cost (AC): The net cost of a drug paid by a pharmacy and includes discounts, rebates, chargebacks and other adjustments. ADAP Supplemental Discount/Rebate: An additional discount for direct purchase states or rebate for pharmacy network states, negotiated with individual drug manufacturers by the ADAP Crisis Task Force. ADAP Supplemental Discount/Rebate: An additional discount for direct purchase states or rebate for pharmacy network states, negotiated with individual drug manufacturers by the ADAP Crisis Task Force.

6 Unit Rebate Amount (URA) The rebate amount paid by a manufacturer to ADAP/Medicaid for each unit (e.g., capsule) by NDC of drug. The rebate amount paid by a manufacturer to ADAP/Medicaid for each unit (e.g., capsule) by NDC of drug. URA is calculated quarterly by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services based on data submitted by the drug companies. URA is calculated quarterly by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services based on data submitted by the drug companies. The 340B Price is calculated by subtracting the URA from AMP. The 340B Price is calculated by subtracting the URA from AMP.

7 URA Calculation Minimum of 15.1% of AMP OR Minimum of 15.1% of AMP OR Difference between AMP and Best Price, if larger (Best Price adjustment) Difference between AMP and Best Price, if larger (Best Price adjustment)PLUS Additional rebate if AMP price increases exceed inflation rate of the Consumer Price (Urban) Index. Inflation calculated back to initial introduction of the drug Additional rebate if AMP price increases exceed inflation rate of the Consumer Price (Urban) Index. Inflation calculated back to initial introduction of the drug Brand Name Drugs Generic Drugs 11% of AMP 11% of AMP

8 Pharmacy Network Distribution System Model Program reimburses a broad network of pharmacies for dispensing drugs to patients Program reimburses a broad network of pharmacies for dispensing drugs to patients Model used by Medicaid, private insurance companies and 50% of ADAPs Model used by Medicaid, private insurance companies and 50% of ADAPs Cost = Pharmacy Discount Rate + Dispensing Fee – Rebate Cost = Pharmacy Discount Rate + Dispensing Fee – Rebate Reimbursement rates may be multi-tiered Example: Lowest of: Reimbursement rates may be multi-tiered Example: Lowest of: 1) Brand Name Drugs = AWP-12% + $3.50 (Dispensing Fee) 1) Brand Name Drugs = AWP-12% + $3.50 (Dispensing Fee) 2) Multi-source Drugs = FUL price + $4.50 (Dispensing Fee) 2) Multi-source Drugs = FUL price + $4.50 (Dispensing Fee) 3) Acquisition Cost = 340B price paid by hospital/clinic + Dispensing Fee(no rebate with #3) 3) Acquisition Cost = 340B price paid by hospital/clinic + Dispensing Fee(no rebate with #3)

9 Pharmacy Network Costs Example = $100. AWP Drug Dispensing Fee ($3.50) Pharmacy Discount ($12.00) Pharmacy cost/profit ($5.00) Wholesaler cost/profit ($4.00) Manufacturer cost/profit ($52.85) Minimum 15.1% rebate ($11.93) Best Price adjustment ($2.37) CPI adjustment ($3.95) ADAP Supplemental rebate ($7.90) ADAP Net Cost = $65.35 (DF + Pharmacy + Wholesaler + Manufacturer)

10 Direct Purchase Model Program purchases drugs directly from wholesaler at 340B (PHS) pricing schedule. Program purchases drugs directly from wholesaler at 340B (PHS) pricing schedule. Model used by public hospitals, community health centers and 50% of ADAPs. Model used by public hospitals, community health centers and 50% of ADAPs. Cost = 340B price + Distribution System Costs. Cost = 340B price + Distribution System Costs. Distribution System Costs are variable based on approach, size and existing infrastructure. Distribution System Costs are variable based on approach, size and existing infrastructure.

11 Direct Purchase Distribution System Cost may include: Central Pharmacy Central pharmacy costs (staffing, storage, loss due to expiration). Central pharmacy costs (staffing, storage, loss due to expiration). Shipping (and losses). Shipping (and losses). Local distribution sites (pharmacy operating costs, dispensing fees, and drugs not dispensed). Local distribution sites (pharmacy operating costs, dispensing fees, and drugs not dispensed). Mail Order Profit, central pharmacy cost and shipping, but no local site distribution costs. Profit, central pharmacy cost and shipping, but no local site distribution costs.

12 Direct Purchase Model Issues Cost to program may be reduced if distribution costs are spread out across existing health care infrastructure. Cost to program may be reduced if distribution costs are spread out across existing health care infrastructure. Limited distribution sites (patient transportation). Limited distribution sites (patient transportation). Alternative: retail pharmacies = shipping & dispensing costs. Potential delays in filling (shipping time). Potential delays in filling (shipping time). Alternative: inventory replacement = pharmacy cooperation. Alternative: inventory replacement = pharmacy cooperation. Mail Order - confidentiality and stable housing issues. - save on shipping with 90 day supply days supply = waste with regimen changes. Mail Order - confidentiality and stable housing issues. - save on shipping with 90 day supply days supply = waste with regimen changes.

13 Direct Purchase Costs Example = $100. AWP Drug Manufacturer cost/profit ($52.85) Minimum 15.1% discount ($11.93) Best Price adjustment ($2.37) CPI adjustment ($3.95) ADAP Supplemental rebate ($7.90) ADAP Net Cost = Manufacturer + Distribution & Dispensing 340 B Price ($60.75) AMP Price ($79.00) AWP Price ($100.00) Distribution and Dispensing Costs ($??.??) Wholesaler Discount ($1.59)

14 Hybrid Purchasing Model Program contracts with a 340B entity to purchase medications at 340B (PHS) pricing schedule. Program contracts with a 340B entity to purchase medications at 340B (PHS) pricing schedule. Model employed by several ADAPs (i.e., KY, UT) utilizing the pharmacy infrastructure of a hospital. Model employed by several ADAPs (i.e., KY, UT) utilizing the pharmacy infrastructure of a hospital. 340B entity purchases all drugs (ADAPs & hospitals) at 340B price and does not maintain separate inventories. 340B entity purchases all drugs (ADAPs & hospitals) at 340B price and does not maintain separate inventories. Hospital provides detailed reports of drugs dispensed to ADAP – which allows filing for ADAP supplemental rebates. Hospital provides detailed reports of drugs dispensed to ADAP – which allows filing for ADAP supplemental rebates. Cost = 340B price + Distribution System Costs - Rebates. Cost = 340B price + Distribution System Costs - Rebates. Distribution System Costs may be billed as a dispensing fee and/or hospital costs (e.g., pharmacy staff, shipping). Distribution System Costs may be billed as a dispensing fee and/or hospital costs (e.g., pharmacy staff, shipping).

15 Hybrid Purchase Costs Example = $100. AWP Drug 340 B Entity Purchase Price ($60.75) Minimum 15.1% discount ($11.93) Best Price adjustment ($2.37) CPI adjustment ($3.95) ADAP Supplemental rebate ($7.90) ADAP Net Cost = 340B Price + Distribution & Dispensing - Rebate 340 B Price AMP Price ($79.00) AWP Price ($100.00) Distribution and Dispensing Costs ($??.??)

16 Generics The cost of generic drugs may be significantly higher for rebate states than direct purchase states. The cost of generic drugs may be significantly higher for rebate states than direct purchase states. The AMP of generics may be a much lower percentage of AWP than brand name drugs. The AMP of generics may be a much lower percentage of AWP than brand name drugs. This results in a very large profit margin to the pharmacy/wholesaler (spread between pharmacy discount rate and AMP), and a smaller rebate (11% of a smaller AMP). This results in a very large profit margin to the pharmacy/wholesaler (spread between pharmacy discount rate and AMP), and a smaller rebate (11% of a smaller AMP). If there are multiple manufacturers of a generic, then a Federal Upper Limit (FUL) price is established which may reduce the reimbursement rate to pharmacies. If there are multiple manufacturers of a generic, then a Federal Upper Limit (FUL) price is established which may reduce the reimbursement rate to pharmacies.

17 Direct Purchase Costs Generic Example = $90. AWP Drug Manufacturer cost/profit ($40.05) Minimum 11.1% discount ($4.95) ADAP Net Cost = Manufacturer + Distribution & Dispensing 340 B Price ($40.05) AMP Price ($45.00) AWP Price ($90.00) Distribution and Dispensing Costs ($??.??)

18 Pharmacy Network Costs Generic Example = $90. AWP Drug Dispensing Fee ($4.50) Pharmacy Discount ($10.80) Wholesaler/Pharmacy cost/profit ($34.20) Manufacturer cost/profit ($40.05) Minimum 11% rebate ($4.95) ADAP Net Cost = $78.75 (DF + Pharmacy + Wholesaler + Manufacturer)

19 Estimated Prices For Selected Public Purchasers, as Percent AWP von Oehsen; Pharmaceutical Discounts Under Federal Law: State Program Opportunities Stephen Schondelmeyer, PRIME Institute, University of Minnesota (2001) 100.0% 80.0% 67.9% 60.5% 51.7% 49.0% 47.9% 34.6% 0%20%40%60%80%100% AWP AMP Medicaid (Min.) Medicaid Net FSS 340B FCP VA Contract Private Sector Pricing

20 Getting the correct price Problems/Suggestions: Too many drugs to monitor. Identify your highest expenditure NDCs. Identify your highest expenditure NDCs. Wholesalers and the wrong pricing schedule. Partner with another direct purchase state (different wholesaler) and compare prices quarterly. Partner with another direct purchase state (different wholesaler) and compare prices quarterly. Make sure that drug manufacturers know who is your wholesaler for notification of ADAP pricing. Make sure that drug manufacturers know who is your wholesaler for notification of ADAP pricing. Confidential pricing – AMP, PHS, URA, etc. Confidential pricing – AMP, PHS, URA, etc. Ask your wholesaler for a 340B pricing list - ADAP price should be better due to supplemental agreements. Ask your wholesaler for a 340B pricing list - ADAP price should be better due to supplemental agreements. Office of Pharmacy Affairs will compare your price (rebate) to 340B price (URA) for a small number of NDCs. Office of Pharmacy Affairs will compare your price (rebate) to 340B price (URA) for a small number of NDCs. Prime Vendor Program has established a secure website for members that provides the 340B prices of a limited (currently) number of manufacturers. Prime Vendor Program has established a secure website for members that provides the 340B prices of a limited (currently) number of manufacturers.

21 Getting the correct price - 2 Complex calculations with secret numbers to arrive at correct price. Focus instead on quarterly price/rebate changes on priority NDCs. Focus instead on quarterly price/rebate changes on priority NDCs. Direct price/rebates shouldnt change radically due to CPI protection. Direct price/rebates shouldnt change radically due to CPI protection. Cant keep track of all of the ADAP Crisis Task Force agreements. NASTAD sends s and mails hard copy to AIDS Directors/ADAP Coordinators when new agreements are reached or existing agreements are changed. NASTAD sends s and mails hard copy to AIDS Directors/ADAP Coordinators when new agreements are reached or existing agreements are changed. Contact Lanny Cross with questions. Contact Lanny Cross with

22 Future Pricing Issues Deficit Reduction Act (2006) – still being contested Lowers FUL pricing for generics (250% of AMP) Eliminates manufacturers ability to exclude certain prices from the Best Price calculation. AMP pricing becomes publicly available July Proposed - FY2007 Budget Further decrease in FUL price (150% of AMP) Eliminates Best Price component from Medicaid rebate calculation - ?? Effect on 340B pricing ?? Office of Pricing Affairs receives new funding to improve monitoring of and access to 340B pricing. Proposed - Healthy America Act (S. 4) Allows 340B entities to use multiple contract pharmacies Increased auditing of and access to 340B pricing.

23 Average Sales Price (ASP) Average Sales Price (ASP): A new system created by federal and state government prosecutors in settlements with pharmaceutical manufacturers to ensure more accurate price reporting. Average Sales Price (ASP): A new system created by federal and state government prosecutors in settlements with pharmaceutical manufacturers to ensure more accurate price reporting. ASP is the weighted average of all non-federal sales to wholesalers and is net of chargebacks, discounts, rebates, and other benefits tied to the purchase of the drug product, whether it is paid to the wholesaler or the retailer. ASP is the weighted average of all non-federal sales to wholesalers and is net of chargebacks, discounts, rebates, and other benefits tied to the purchase of the drug product, whether it is paid to the wholesaler or the retailer. Medicare began basing payments for drugs covered under Part B on average sales price (ASP) on January 1, Medicare began basing payments for drugs covered under Part B on average sales price (ASP) on January 1, 2005.

24 ASP - Issues Positives: As a public price it would allow ADAPs to track and verify pricing more easily. As a public price it would allow ADAPs to track and verify pricing more easily. Less potential for price manipulation. Less potential for price manipulation. Should reduce cost of generics for rebate states. Should reduce cost of generics for rebate states.Concerns: No minimum rebate/discount for 340B entities. No minimum rebate/discount for 340B entities. Removes the current safeguard that holds 340B price increases to the rate of inflation. Removes the current safeguard that holds 340B price increases to the rate of inflation.


Download ppt "Overview of Drug Purchasing & Pricing Lanny T. Cross ADAP Program Specialist."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google