Agenda What is supply risk? Managing price volatility Supply continuity planning Summary
Definition of Supply Risk The potential occurrence of an incident or failure to seize opportunities with inbound supply in which its outcomes result in a financial loss for the firm.
Supply Risk Sources Suppliers Market/Industry Amplified by Item and Platform Characteristics
Risk Sources from Suppliers Capacity constraints Cost reduction capabilities Cycle time Disasters Environmental performance Financial health Transportation systems
Risk Sources from Suppliers Information system incompatibility Inventory management Legal liabilities Management vision and stability Product and process innovation Quality problems Shipment quantity inaccuracies Volume and product mix requirements
Risk Sources from Markets Global sourcing Market capacity constraints Number of qualified suppliers Geopolitical climate Market price increases
Model of Supply Risk Effects Market/ Industry Suppliers Geopolitical Environment Customers Purchase Price Increases Supply Interruptions Revenue Reduction Product Liability PROFITEROSION
Commodity Prices are Volatile Oil price volatility Steel (>100% price increase from to today) Import tariff removal Industry consolidation Production capacity reduction Increase use in China Food products Florida hurricanes September 2004 Tomato prices skyrocketed
Approaches to Manage Price Volatility 1.Hedging Formal market instruments Indirect hedging 2.Avoiding Market intelligence Substitutes 3.Reducing Process improvements Forward buys 4.Sharing Contracts Pass through pricing
Influencing Factors Substitutability Pass/Share Risk Burden Customer Supplier Inventory Carrying Cost Scale of Purchase Direct Futures/Options Exist
Managing Price Volatility Starts with Setting Risk Objects, Relationships, and Market Intelligence Setting Risk Objectives: Do current commodity market prices represent a value? What are the underlying commodity market fundamental trends? Is there product price flexibility? Can the business withstand potential margin erosion? How will competitors react to changing commodity prices? Is the changing price a blip or long-term trend?
Gathering Market Intelligence – Web Sites Global Business Reference: Supplier Directories Embassies and Consulates HBS Industry Links: NAICS/SIC/UNSPSC SemaTech Raw Material Indexes Economic Indicators: Economist, WTO, World Bank CIA Fact Book, OANDA Company Financial Research: SEC Filings (Edgar online) Fortune 500 Useful Links: Globe Smart Executive Planet Geography Specific: Asia Europe Middle East South America
Framework for Commodity Risk Management Use Substitute Dollar Size of Purchase Yes No High Low Contractual Clause Or Pass On Price Increase Imminent Economical to Buy Ahead Do Nothing Forward Buy Yes No Substitute Available Pass/Share with Customer Pass/Share with Supplier Inventory Carrying Cost Yes Low No Yes (Slide continued on next page)
Framework for Commodity Risk Management Live With It Acquire Surrogate Futures/Options Acquire Futures/Options Direct Market Exists Yes No Substitute Market Exists (Slide continued)
Commodity Hedging Example
Background Surcharge History 1998 / Low Fuel Costs 2000 –Fuel costs began to escalate in February –Paid $5.4M 2001 YTD –Fuel costs remained high –Paid $2.8M YTD (Jan - Jul) –Plan is $6.3M, the 5+7 Outlook is $5.7M
The Problem Sensitivity Analysis Diesel Pump Price ($ / gal) $1.10$1.50$2.00 Surcharge $0 $2.3 million $4.9 million (Sep - Dec 01) Surcharge$0 $6.2 million $13.2 million (Annualized)
National Average Diesel Long Term Trends
Now What? Company Consumes and Hedges/Trades Natural Gas Futures Company Does not Consume Diesel Fuel, nor is it Traded. Company Does not Consume Heating Oil, but it is Traded. Strong Correlation between Heating Oil Futures and Diesel Pump Prices
Heating Oil and Diesel Correlation
One Potential Solution For surcharges – the company does consume diesel fuel (27 Million Gallons Annually) and therefore should participate in futures trading of heating oil. Correlation between Heating Oil Futures and Diesel Pump Prices R 2 correlation coefficient = (very good) 42,000 gals = 1 Heating Oil Futures Contract Would need 660 Heating Oil contracts to cover surcharges
Fuel Hedging New and Innovative Component of our Fuel Strategy in Cooperation w/Commodities. Balance market exposures to diesel price fluctuations thru participation in heating oil futures. Locked-In pricing on 27,500,000 gallons of fuel. Paid Fuel in $1.24 !!!!!!! Market Returned Incremental $1.7M in 2002 !!
Supply Continuity Planning
Definition of Business Continuity Planning The business management practices that provide the focus and guidance for the decisions and actions necessary for a business to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, resume, recover, restore, and transition from a disruptive (crisis) event in a manner consistent with its strategic objectives (Shaw and Harrald, 2004; p. 3) Supply Continuity planning (SCP) is an important facet of business continuity planning
Enhanced SCP/SC Framework Awareness Prevention Remediation Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Internal External Identification Assessment Treatment Monitoring Plan – how to minimize: Impact Duration Resources Execution Track results Things gone right Things gone wrong Future action list
Elements of SCP Awareness Recognition of exposure to risk within the supply chain Awareness of Probability Impact Recognition of effects of risk on: Physical assets Information Awareness: Internal External
Elements of SCP Prevention Goal Reduce likelihood and/or impact of supply chain disruptions. Key Processes: Risk identification Risk assessment Risk treatment Risk monitoring
Elements of SCP Remediation Goal: Identify a priori procedures for managing the four stages of a disruption –Interruption, response, recovery, restoration of operations Minimize adverse impact on: –Time –Cost Determine most effective allocation of resources
Elements of SCP Knowledge Management Goal Learn from experience –Things gone wrong –Things gone right –Results of remediation efforts Modify current procedures and systems to reflect lessons learned. A SCP post mortem Formalized activity
Summary for Managing Supply Risk Supply risk differs by its sources and dimensions Awareness and knowledge are the first steps Commodity price management and supply continuity planning are two ways that organizations can manage supply risk QUESTIONS?