Presentation on theme: "Pricing (price policy)"— Presentation transcript:
1Pricing (price policy) How do consumers process and evaluate prices?How should a company set prices initially for products and services?How should a company adapt prices to meet varying opportunities:When should company initiate a price change?
2Price is...Price is the one element of the marketing mix that produces revenue – the other elements produce costs.Prices are perhaps the easiest element of the marketing program to adjust.Throughout most of history, prices were set by negotiation between buyers and sellers. Bargaining is still a sport in some areas.
3How companies price? Factors of pricing: Internal factors External factors
4Perception of priceReference prices: comparing an observed price to an internal reference price which customers remember or to an external frame of reference such as a posted „regular retail price.“Price-quality inferences: many consumers use price as an indicator of qualityPrice endings: Prices that end with 0 and 5 are common in market place. Also ending with „9“ is very popular.
11The three major considerations in price setting: costs set a flooor to the price. Competitor´s prices and the price of substitutes provide an orienting point. Consumers ´ assessment of unique features establishes the price ceiling.