How to get the right price * export literature, translation, freight forwarding, logistics, export packing, product modifications, packaging, labeling, compliance with foreign standards, insurance, credit checking, export documentation, export financing, charges and of an overseas staff training … Relative Costs Export Costs* Demand Competition Price Relative Costs Export Costs* Demand Competition Price Relative Costs Export Costs* Demand Competition Price
Some Pricing Strategies Bottom Up – Pricing applying the traditional Cost Plus approach to get the right price Top Down – Pricing Target Pricing to become competitive at a given price level on a price sensitive market Skimming Get what you can!
Bottom Up - Pricing Export Price is calculated on base of domestic price Cost for export is just added to domestic price Pros & Contras ?
Bottom Up - Pricing Variation: Marginal Costing –direct cost of procuction and sales –fixed costs apportiond to sales volume Conditions for Marginal Cost-Pricing –Stable Volumes –Marginal price is aplicable to new market Marginal Costing may allow to find a more agressive price on a competitive market
Bottom Up - Pricing (1/2) Free On Board (FOB)%US$ Wholesale Price (EXW Named Place) + Transport to carrier (airport, wharf) + Customs clearance + Additional packing/labor for transport + Agents commission (Based on FOB price) FOB (Named Place)=129 Cost and Freight (CFR)%US$ FOB Price (FOB Named Place) + Sea/air freight charges to wharf/airport + Sea/air document fees (Airway Bill, B/L) + BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor) + Transport contingency CFR (Named Place)=166 Ex Works (EXW)%US$ Wholesale Price 100 EXW (Named Place)100
Bottom Up – Pricing (2/2) Carriage Paid To (CPT)%US$ CFR (Named Place) + Cost for off-loading at destination CPT (Named Place)=167 Cost, Insurance Freight (CIF)%US$ CPT (Named Place) + Cost Insurance premium / agio CIF (Named Place)=169 Delivery Duty Paid (DDP)%US$ CIF (Named Place) + Import duty, taxes (% on CIF price) + Customs clearance fees + To door delivery DDP (Named Place)=218
Top Down - Pricing Calculate backward from a given market price to an EXW – price Compare with your EXW - price Take Actions: –Change / Develop your EXW price using such tools as supply management, re- engineering, lean production, outsourcing … –Go for other strategies, i.e. maximizing volumes, profit, market share –Back out?
Top Down - Pricing Trading Stage Price Per unit (%) Calculation Tip Glass of honey at Dutch retail store117 Deducting VAT (here: 17%)*17117 – (117/1,17) Retail price excluding VAT100117/1,17 Retailer Margin (52%)*52100 x 0,52 Retailer buys at / Importer sells at Importer Margin (Profit and Cost: here37%)*1348-(48/1,37) Importer buys at (including a 20% duty on CIF)* Duty635-(35/1,2) CIF Price at Importer Deduct your fright cost4Quotation Deduct your insurance cost4Quotation FOB Price Deduct FOB cost2Quotation EXW Price ** *See local rates of target market ** Deduct Broker / Agent commission if applicable
Export Costs Problem: Export costs are not always calculable or known right from the beginning However it is crucial for the outcome to determine them as exact as possible Sometimes only export experience can help you out
Typical reasons for cost explosion Wrong trading terms applied or terms not understood => fright / logistical costs Packing (labeling requirements are not met For any reason: Last minute product modifications / last minute product adaption => additional, not calculated costs Wrong /incorrect / incomplete documentation Unforeseen delays (check reason for delay: document / certificate / label?)
Also have a look at… Fixed or variable costs are changing after accepting an order Currency changes - cover foreign exchange risk Rapid change of market prices – forecasting Changing conditions: legal / state of the art / other requirements
Assignment Prepare a price analysis for your company Use quotations & calculation tables as tools Give recommendations on actual pricing Prepare small presentation