Presentation on theme: "COST APPROACHES TO PRICING"— Presentation transcript:
1COST APPROACHES TO PRICING Prof. Dr. M. Selçuk UsluBaşkent ÜniversitesiİİBF
2Mark Up Approaches To Pricing This method is one of the major methods used in pricing food and beverages. Mark up on cost covers all non product costs such as, labor, utilities, supplies, interest expense etc.There are two versions of this method as “ingredient mark up” and “prime ingredient mark up”.
3Four Steps in Ingredient Mark Up Approach Determine the ingredient costs,Determine the multiple to use in marking up the ingredient costs,Multiply the ingredient costs by the multiple to get the desired price,Determine whether the price seems reasonable based on the market.
4EXAMPLE: CHICKEN DINNER AND COSTS1 Ingredient Cost ($)• Chicken 2 piecesBaked potatoRoll and butterVegetableSalad with dressingCoffee refills freeTotal cost1. Kaynak:Raymond S. Schmidgall, Managerial Accounting For The Hospitality Industry, 4th. Ed., Educational Institute, Lansing, 1997, s. 243.
5DETERMINATION OF MULTIPLE: Assume that the desired food cost percentage in the restaurant is 40%. In this case the multiple would be:1 / .40 : 2.5, than the price of the chicken meal would be:1.32 * 2.5: $3.3
6PRIME INGREDIENT APPROACH: This approach is similar to the ingredient mark up approach. Only difference is that the prime ingredient (chicken) is multiplied with the desired multiple. Assume that the desired multiple is 5.8. The price of the chicken meal would be:.59 * 5.8 : $3.42
7PRICING ROOMS $1 per $1000 aproach: The above mentioned approach sets the price of a room at $1 for each $1000 of project cost per room. For example if the project cost of a room is $80000 then the price of the room wil be: $80000/$1000: $80
8Hubbart Formula in room pricing: 8 steps involved in Hubbart Formula:Calculate the desired profit by multiplying the desired rate of return (ROI) by the owners’ investment.Calculate pretax profits by dividing desired profit (step 1) by 1 minus tax rate.Calculate fixed charges and management fees. (depreciation, interest expense, property taxes,insurance, amortization,rent and management fees).Calculate undistributed operating expenses. (administartive and general, data processing, human resources,transportation,marketing, property operation and maintenance, and energy costs.Estimate non room operated income or losses. That is food & beverage, telephone, etc. income.
9Continued:6. Calculate the required rooms department income. That is, step 2 + step 3 + step 4 + step 5.7. Determine the rooms department revenue. That is step 6 + rooms department direct expenses of payroll and related expenses + other direct expenses.8. Calculate the average room rate by dividing step 7 by rooms expected to be sold.
10EXAMPLE: Kaynak: (Schmidgall, 1997) The Harkins Hotel, a 200 room hotel, is projected to cost $ inclusive of land, building, equipment and furniture. An additional $ is needed for working capital: The hotel is financed with a loan of $ at 12% annual interest with the owners’ providing cash of $ The owners’ required rate of return on their investment is 15% annually. A 75% occupancy is estimated; thus rooms will be sold during the year (200 * .75 * 365)The income tax rate is estimated 40%.
12Estimated other operated departments’ income or losses: Food $BeverageTelephone (50 000)Rentals & other incomeRooms department direct expenses are $10 per room sold.
13ÇÖZÜM: Desired net income (2 500 000 * .15) $ 375 000 Pretax income ( / )Interest expense ( * .12)Income before interest & taxesDep., prop. Taxes & insIncome after undistr. Oper. ExpUndistr. Oper. ExpRequired oper. Depart. IncomeLess: Food income (90 000)Beverage income (60 000)Rentals & other income ( )Plus: Telephone department lossRooms department incomeRooms depar. Direct exp. ( * 10)Rooms revenue
14Continued: Required average room rate: 3 712 500 / 54 750: $67.81 Calculation of single and double room rates:Usually double rooms are sold at a diferent price than the single rooms.Assume that in Harkins Hotel a double occupancy rate is 40% and price difference with single is $10.
15Calculations: Doubles sold in one day: .40 * 200 * .75: 60 Singles sold in one day: 150 – 60: 90Let x be the single room rate, than;90x + 60(x + 10) : * 150: $63.81Double room rate: : $73.81Alternatively the double rate can be set as a percentage of the single rate. 15% mark up on single rate. The equation will be as follows:90x + 60x(1.15) : * 150: $63.97Double rate: * 1.15: $73.57
16Bottom-up Approach To Pricing Meals ItemAmountOtherOwner’s investment$Desired ROI: 12%Funds borrowedınterest rate: 10%Tax rate30%Fixed chargesAnnualControllable exp.annualCost of food perc.40%Seat turnover2 times per dayDays open313 daysAn approach like Hubbart Formula can be used to determine the average meal price.Example:
17Calculation: Item Calculation Amount Desired net income 200 000 * .12 $Pretax profits/ .7034286Interest* .1050 000Total expenses and income$Total food revenue/ .60$Meals sold313 * 100 * 262 600Average meal price/$
18Dividing food revenue between lunch and dinner: Assume food revenue will be divided between lunch and dinner as 40% and 60% respectively. Luncheon seat turnover 1.25 and dinner seat turnover is .75.Revenue per meal period:Lunch: * .40: $Dinner: * .60: $Meals sold per meal:Lunch: 100 * 313 * 1.25:Dinner: 100 * 313 * .75:Average meal prices: Lunch: /39125: $11.66Dinner: / 23475: $29.15