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7 - 1 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Elasticity of Demand & Supply 7 C H A P T E R

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7 - 2 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show HOW MUCH MORE OR LESS? DOES IT MATTER? to whom? Think About It... THE LAW OF DEMAND SAYS... PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Consumers will buy more when prices go down and less when prices go up Price Elasticity Provides an Answer

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7 - 3 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show The percentage change in price The percentage change in quantity.01.02 Elasticity is.5 Q P P1P1 P2P2 Q1Q1 Q2Q2 D Measures Responsiveness to Price Changes PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND

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7 - 4 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show The percentage change in price The percentage change in quantity Q P P1P1 P2P2 Q1Q1 Q2Q2 D Commonly Expressed as… PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND %P % Q d Elasticity is.5

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7 - 5 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show The Price-Elasticity Coefficient and Formula PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND E d = Percentage change in quantity demanded of product X Percentage change in price of product X Or equivalently… E d = Percentage change in quantity demanded of X Original quantity demanded of X Change in price of X Original price of X Elimination of the Minus Sign

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7 - 6 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Interpretations of E d PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Elastic Demand E d =.04.02 = 2 Inelastic Demand E d =.01.02 =.5 Unit Elasticity E d =.02 = 1

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7 - 7 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Extreme Cases PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Perfectly Inelastic Demand Perfectly Elastic Demand P 0 P 0 D1D1 E d = 0 D2D2 E d = Q Q

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7 - 8 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Refinement – The Midpoint Formula PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND EdEd = Change in quantity Sum of Quantities/2 Change in price Sum of prices/2

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7 - 9 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D When prices are low, TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE So is total revenue

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7 - 10 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE

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7 - 11 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... then declines TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE

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7 - 12 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... then declines TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE

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7 - 13 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... then declines TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE Total Revenue Test

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7 - 14 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... then declines Inelastic Demand Inelastic Demand TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE

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7 - 15 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... then declines Elastic Demand Elastic Demand Inelastic Demand TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE Inelastic Demand

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7 - 16 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Q P D Total revenue rises with price to a point... then declines Elastic Demand Elastic Demand Inelastic Demand TR Quantity Demanded PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE Inelastic Demand Unit Elastic

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7 - 17 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Inelastic from 0 to 1 Typical of necessities one must have Typical of luxuries one wants Elastic from 1 to Unit elastic when exactly = 1 Price change does not reduce total revenue Price Elasticity is... PRICE ELASTICITY & TOTAL REVENUE

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7 - 18 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show DETERMINANTS OF PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND Substitutability Proportion of Income Luxuries versus Necessities Time Applications... Large Crop Yields Excise Taxes Decriminalization of Illegal Drugs Minimum Wage

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7 - 19 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Now, compare the immediate market period, the short-run, and long run. PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY Es=Es= Percentage change in quantity supplied of good X Percentage change in the price of good X

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7 - 20 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PoPo P Q D1D1 QoQo An increase in demand without enough time to change supply causes… SmSm Immediate Market period PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY

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7 - 21 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PoPo PmPm P Q D1D1 QoQo D2D2 An increase in demand without enough time to change supply causes… an increase in price SmSm Immediate Market period PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY

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7 - 22 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PoPo P Q D1D1 QoQo Short Run PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY An increase in demand with less intensity supply use causes... SsSs

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7 - 23 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PoPo P Q D1D1 QoQo D2D2 Short Run PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY PsPs An increase in demand with less intensity supply use causes...a lower increase in price SsSs QsQs

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7 - 24 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PoPo P Q D1D1 QoQo Long Run PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY An increase in demand in the long run allows greater change causing... SLSL

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7 - 25 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show PoPo P Q D1D1 QoQo D2D2 Long Run PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY PLPL An increase in demand in the long run allows greater change causing... SLSL QLQL Even more elastic response - less price increase

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7 - 26 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Applications of Price Elasticity of Supply Antiques and Reproductions Volatile Gold Prices PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY

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7 - 27 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show CROSS ELASTICITY OF DEMAND E xy = Percentage change in quantity demanded of good X Percentage change in the price of good y Positive Sign Goods are Substitutes Negative Sign Goods are Complementary Zero or Near-Zero Value Goods are Independent

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7 - 28 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND E i = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in income Positive Sign Goods are Normal or Superior Negative Sign Goods are Inferior

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price elasticity of demand elastic demand inelastic demand unit elasticity perfectly inelastic demand perfectly elastic demand total revenue (TR) total-revenue test price elasticity of supply market period short run long run cross elasticity of demand income elasticity of demand ENDBACK Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005

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7 - 30 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005 Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity and Total Revenue Determinants of Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Supply Cross Elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Next: Chapter 8 Consumer Behavior and Utility Maximization

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