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1 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. DYNAMIC SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT (DSM): Spectrum Sharing Techniques for Harvesting Underutilized Spectrum, such as Unlicensed Bands, TV White Space and Federal Bands For more information please contact: or visit our website at
2 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. DSM Vision: Spectrum Sharing will be the norm Spectrum Manager Shared Spectrum Public Safety/Government (Tier 1) Military (Tier 1) Small Cell LTE or Wi-Fi Network (Tier 2) Macro LTE Network (Tier 2) Spectrum Request Ad-hoc, Consumer, Smart Grid (Tier 3)
3 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Spectrum Sharing and How Its Shaping Up within the Ecosystem Regulatory bodies want to see more efficient use of allocated spectrum: reallocating underutilized spectrum is very expensive and time-consuming TVWS remains a solid scenario, but the scope of spectrum sharing has broadened and other use cases have emerged: Licensed Shared Access (LSA)3-Tier models blending in licensed and opportunistic access, e.g. PCAST FCCs proposal to share 3.5GHz federal band and European initiative in GHz band are notices of intent to take spectrum sharing broader Small Cells is a common theme across almost all use cases Cell densification strategies to provide supplemental capacity where needed Use of alternate spectrum sources to avoid interference with macro cellular layer Technology will need to evolve to efficiently enable sharing: interference management, channel management, co-existence mechanisms, opportunistic access, etc Spectrum sharing will most likely impose power limits which will force the migration towards smaller cells: note the trend towards smaller cells is currently happening due to increased wireless capacity demand The trend towards small cells also pushes the industry towards cheap and available spectrum such as shared spectrum (i.e. ISM, TVWS, etc)
4 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Taxonomy of Spectrum Allocation Models Exclusive Use Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing Opportunistic Access (e.g. TVWS) Licensed Shared Access (LSA) Hybrid (e.g. PCAST) Incumbent Opportunistic Incumbent Licensed Incumbent Licensed Opportunistic.. Licensed approach (e.g. Cellular). Auctions of cleared spectrum. Unlicensed approach (e.g. Wi-Fi) Evidence of All Three Spectrum Sharing Models Emerging
5 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Public Safety Network (Tier 1) Small Cell Operated by MNO (Tier 2) Channel Unused Turn on Small Cells Cellular Operator Sharing Spectrum Owned by Public Safety Organization Cellular operator with macro network leverages spectrum owned by public safety organization, when not used by public safety org. Based on Spectrum Sharing agreement between the two Tier 2 Operator moves users/ traffic to Small Cells Only Licensed access (no Opportunistic access) => more guaranteed QoS for Tier 2 operator Spectrum bands under consideration in Europe: GHz Licensed Shared Access (LSA) Small Cell Operated by MNO (Tier 2) Cellular Operator Leverages Public Safety Spectrum to Augment Capacity
6 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Macro Cell (Tier 1 Operator) Wi-Fi User (Tier 3) Small Cell (Tier 2 Operator) Tier 1 Not Using Tier 2 Uses 3-Tier Framework for Licensed and Opportunistic Sharing of Federal Spectrum Tier 2 (Priority Access) uses Tier 1 spectrum when Incumbent not using Tier 3 (General Authorized Access) leverages spectrum when Tiers 1 & 2 not using FCC has proposed releasing 3550 – 3700 MHz spectrum as first spectrum sharing target Incumbents: Naval Radar ( MHz) and Fixed Satellite systems ( MHz) Likely to be a critical test case for spectrum sharing in other federal bands Sharing Federal Spectrum – PCAST Model Tier 2 Not Using Tier 3 Uses Provide protection of the incumbent, reliable operation for priority users and opportunistic access for general users
7 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Database Access Spectrum Sensing Spectrum Allocation Spectrum Access (Scheduling) Channels Allocate Channel, Aggregate Channels Switch/ Vacate Channel Primary User Occupancy Secondary User Interference Channel List Registered Primary Users Listen Before \Talk Coexistence Gaps Channel occupied by Primary User High interference from Secondary Users Channel Available for allocation DSM System – Key Components: Leveraging legacy Wi-Fi and LTE technology Spectrum Database identifies open channels and registered Primary Users Spectrum Sensing detects Primary Users & Secondary User interference Agile Spectrum Allocation ensures QoE Coexistence schemes such as listen before talk, coexistence gaps, to observe access etiquette and ensure harmonious coexistence with secondary users Spectrum Database identifies open channels and registered Primary Users Spectrum Sensing detects Primary Users & Secondary User interference Agile Spectrum Allocation ensures QoE Coexistence schemes such as listen before talk, coexistence gaps, to observe access etiquette and ensure harmonious coexistence with secondary users Aggregation efficiently combines channels wherever they are Non-Contiguous Channel Aggregation & Intelligence to Manage it
8 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. LTE or Wi-Fi Using Supplemental Channels Works as Super-WiFi or for congestion relief, and provides extended range and improved wall penetration Potentially attractive to cellular operators as license-exempt adjunct for offloading Potential Small Cell use case for LTE – deploying TVWS spectrum in Small Cell to mitigate interference to/from Macro Cell Sensing, channel aggregation and low- power transmission are key for extracting capacity in dense urban areas Wi-Fi range extension of particular interest to new entrants – fostering ubiquitous access to consumers (eyeballs) using Wi-Fi Use Case: Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing for Access (e.g. Leveraging TVWS) Wi-Fi w/ TVWS Spectrum Wi-Fi LTE TVWS Macro Cell Small Cell
9 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Shared Spectrum Use Case: Shared Spectrum for Wi-Fi/LTE Backhaul over TVWS Wi-Fi Operating in Shared Spectrum Backhaul using TVWS Channels TVWS propagation characteristics make TVWS-based backhaul deployment cost- effective (i.e. NLOS) Broadband / Cable delivery to areas with inadequate coverage Of interest to fixed / non-cellular operators, cable providers and new entrants… Use case being considered by some cellular operators as well. Backhaul using TVWS Channels TVWS propagation characteristics make TVWS-based backhaul deployment cost- effective (i.e. NLOS) Broadband / Cable delivery to areas with inadequate coverage Of interest to fixed / non-cellular operators, cable providers and new entrants… Use case being considered by some cellular operators as well. Wi-Fi Operating in Shared Spectrum TVWS Backhaul Wi-Fi APs TVWS STA
10 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. Client Router Channel Management Function RF USB DSM Client Access Point Enhanced n MAC/PHY development board (ARM) Sensing toolbox running on a TI OMAP3530 Wideband digital radio development board Digital Baseband Sensing Toolbox (STB) WLAN IP MAC PHY Programmable Interferer TVWS Radio Internet DSM GUI, Media Server, Programmable Interferer SW DSM Monitor Ch50 Ch35 Ch3 14 Ch47 Licensed ASA 6.Ch47 5.Ch03 4.Ch14 3.Ch06 2.Ch50 1.Ch35 Ch06 Full MAC, PHY, RRM implementation FPGA / DSP to support sensing, aggregation and radio interfaces Wideband radio supports TVWS ( , MHz) Aggregation of up to four non-contiguous 5 MHz bandwidth slices in TVWS Detection of both DTV and Wireless Microphone signals per FCC requirements DSM Wi-Fi Technology Platform
11 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. LTE Solution Platform Architecture Downlink TVWS Carrier Aggregation Primary component carrier in licensed band Supplementary 5MHz component carrier in TVWS band Required Capabilities: LTE stack enhanced to operate in TVWS bands Spectrum Database access to identify primary users registered on TVWS channels Sensing to detect primary user occupancy and interference from secondary users Aggregation and channel switching across multiple supplementary (TVWS) channels Co-existence between LTE and Wi-Fi Ue eNB
12 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. OTA - 1 CHANNEL – TYPICAL MCS DATA RATES MCS 0 MCS 1 MCS 2 MCS 3 MCS 4 MCS 5 MCS 6 MCS 7
13 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. OTA - 4 CHANNELS - TYPICAL MCS DATA RATES MCS 0 MCS 1 MCS 2 MCS 3 MCS 4 MCS 5 MCS 6 MCS 7
14 © 2013 InterDigital, Inc. All rights reserved. FIELD TRIAL PHOTOS (~1KM BETWEEN AP AND CLIENT)
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