Twisted-Pair 2 insulated copper wires Twisted around each other Reduces crosstalk, EM, and RFI
UTP (Unshielded twisted-pair) Two-Four pairs of wires Cancellation effect Reduces EM and RFI interference
UTP categories Categories are based on – Number of wires in the cable – Number of twists in those wires Category 3 – used in telephone systems – Four wire pairs – 10 Mbps Category 5 or 5e – Four wire pairs – 100 Mbps – 5e has extra twists Category 6 – Plastic dividers to separate wires – More twists than 5e
Shielded twisted-pair (STP) Each pair is wrapped in a metallic foil All wires are then put in a metallic braid or foil
Coaxial Cable Copper-cored cable Has heavy shielding Used to connect to networks
Types of Coaxial Cables Thicknet or 10BASE5 – used in networks – 10 Mbps speed – maximum length of 500 m ( ft). Thinnet 10BASE2 – used in networks – 10 Mbps – maximum length of 185 m (607 ft). RG-59 – Most commonly used for cable television in the U.S. RG-6 – Higher quality cable than RG-59, with more bandwidth and less susceptibility to interference.
Fiber-Optic Cable Made of Glass or plastic Transmits information using light Is not effected by EM or RFI
Types of Fiber-Optic Cables Multimode – thicker core – easier to make – can use simpler light sources (LEDs) – works well over distances of a few kilometers or less Single-mode – very thin core – harder to make – uses lasers as a light source – transmit signals dozens of kilometers with ease