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PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) Pen-based tools for the creation of handwritten learning content Luciano Seta and Giuseppe Chiazzese Institute for Educational.

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Presentation on theme: "PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) Pen-based tools for the creation of handwritten learning content Luciano Seta and Giuseppe Chiazzese Institute for Educational."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) Pen-based tools for the creation of handwritten learning content Luciano Seta and Giuseppe Chiazzese Institute for Educational Technologies Italian National Research Council Palermo (Italy)

2 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Topics Pen-based learning applications PBL in online context STAT: an online BSc degree at Palermo Why is it useful a pen-based approach in this context? The our proposal Examples Results and discussion

3 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta PBL applications Some incentives to apply a PBL approach: –To facilitate the data input (HCI researches) –To elaborate textual and graphical information simultaneously –To enrich the semantic dimension of the educational contents –To move towards mobile educational settings (Kristóf Nyíri - Towards a Philosophy of M- Learning) –To introduce new technologies into the classroom

4 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta PBL applications Some problems to apply a PBL approach: –Costs –Technological divide –Handwriting recognition –Graphic and image recognition –Elaboration and retrieval of the handwritten documents –Metadata, Learning Objects and Learning standards compliance

5 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta PBL in online context In online context it is important to have interactive pen-based applications The handwriting process can help the creation and/or the interaction between teacher-student and student-student The student can use handwriting systems to support annotation of the online didactic materials The teacher can use handwriting systems to produce learning materials

6 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta STAT An online BSc degree in Palermo STAT means –Scienze e Tecnologie per lAmbiente ed il Turismo Translation –Sciences and Technologies for the Environment and Tourism STAT is a bachelor degree set up by the Faculty of Science at the University of Palermo STAT is delivered completely on line, using a Learning Management System STAT started in 2001 STAT involves 40 teachers and in six years 30 students have been enrolled.

7 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The welcome page of STAT Web site The URL The Institution involved in STAT: The University of Palermo The Faculty of Sciences The Institute for Educational Technologies (CNR)

8 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The first page of STAT Web site The menu

9 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The list of modules in STAT Some figures of STAT –52 modules –43 modules online (4 laboratories) –40 teachers –20 students actually enrolled –about 30 students enrolled in six years

10 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Surveys on STAT Various surveys was carried on during STAT experience to assess the quality of the courseware: –Interviews with teachers and students –Motivational questionnaire to evaluate the reasons of the choice to follow the online course –Questionnaires at end of each didactic period about the modules followed –Questionnaires at end of each academic year about the whole experience –Analysis of the didactic contents and learning technologies used

11 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Examples of data results

12 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Examples of data results The principal motivations to prefer STAT: –The opportunity to make up study and work (about 65% of students enrolled indicated this between the most important reasons) –The innovative way to organize the study using new technologies (about 45% indicated this between the others reasons) –The opportunity to study at home (about 40%) –The specific topics of STAT (about 36%)

13 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Formats for contents The analysis of the formats used by the teachers to prepare the contents for the different modules shows the following distribution: –The power point format prevails (slides in figure) –In the html formats are included also java applets and javascript code to realize simple interactive applications –The materials are essentially static and not interactive

14 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Some general remarks The analysis of the data recorded highlighted some critical aspects of this experience, in particular: –The biggest challenge for the teachers is preparing learning materials compatible with the LMS and with the web; –Many teachers have no experience of e-learning environments and so they tend to set up online lessons not suitably tailored for activities based on the web; –The students often perceive the arrangement of the contents as the main weakness in their online didactic experience; in fact, if the online experience is frequently unsatisfactory because of the lack of real interaction between students and teachers this impression can be increased by the poor composition of the contents; –The arrangement of the learning contents can lead the learners to study the online materials like a traditional textbook; for this reason some of the advantages of e-learning will be lost and the impact of this didactic environment may be disappointing.

15 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Why a pen-based approach From this remarks we thought to apply a pen-based approach with the aim to –facilitate the teachers work to prepare the contents –permit a more simple creation of digital documents including text and graphic –create movie files reproducing the didactic content like a lesson into the classroom – make free the teacher with respect the technologies applied in the e-learning context

16 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The our proposal We decide to try a PBL approach for preparing some lesson in the module ofComputing programming and database We chose to apply a didactic methodology based on trial and error We planned to prepare some lessons in which the students have to learn from examples We used this approach during four years

17 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Technological tools The following list shows the tools used by the teacher: –sheet of paper; –Pegasus pen based device; –handwriting acquisition software; –screen capture software; –video real time streaming software; –peer to peer videoconference software connection.

18 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The workflow We tested two scenarios First (asynchronous) 1.While the teacher is writing, a handwriting acquisition tool reproduces the electronic version of the handwritten text 2.In the meantime a live screen recorder captures the writing activity together with the teachers spoken comments 3.A database of handwritten streams was created so that the teacher could use them for the composition of lessons Second (synchronous) 1. Like previous 2.Like previous 3.Using a video conference tool the handwritten document is delivered in real time to all connected students

19 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The handwriting acquisition The teacher used the Pegasus pen based device This device consists of an acquisition apparatus, the base clip, attached to an ordinary sheet of paper and a digital pen. As soon you start writing your text appears on the screen and the NoteManager application allows you to file, edit, modify or e-mail your text.

20 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The Pegasus device Base clip connected to the PC via USB cable Ordinary sheet of paper The digital pen

21 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The digitalized handwritten document Desktop of the computer The digital image of the handwriting document The menu to modify, convert, save and send the digital image

22 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The screen capture tool We capture the handwriting process using a live screen recorder tool (Camtasia Recorder) The tool permits to capture also the teachers audio notes Using a post-production tool (Camtasia Studio) stream videos are created and this tool also permits to assembly graphics, audios, images and videos

23 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The delivering (asynchronous) The stream audio/video is moved via Ftp on the streaming server In this way a database of handwritten streams was created so that the teacher could use them for the composition of lessons The link to the file is embedded in a html file that presents the topics When the student clicks the stream start The student can stop the reproduction and view/listen again When the student looks at the electronic notes he feels as though he is watching the teacher writing on the boardthe teacher writing on the board

24 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The delivering (synchronous) The teacher can use a videoconference tool Using the pen-based device the teacher can interact with the connected students The stream can be captured and delivered via the Learning Management System The video can include also the audio and the image of the teacher

25 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Another application (correction) The student sends an exercise to the teacher The teacher opens the file and corrects the exercise with a pen-based deviceThe teacher opens the file and corrects The corrections are saved in a new file, static or as a video The teacher sends the file to the student or delivers the file via the Learning Management System

26 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Results of this test This experimental procedure was applied to prepare some contents for an introductory course on computer programming, for first year students, and we observed the reaction of the students for a period of four years This PBL approach evidences advantages both for teachers and for students To assess the PBL procedure we think to enlarge the teachers involved At this phase only a qualitative evaluation was possible

27 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The teachers point of view The lessons can be planned in a similar manner to frontal lessons in the classroom: the teachers can continue to work in a traditional manner, thus overcoming some of the problems frequently encountered when one has to prepare web resources The pen-based procedure permits to realize attractive lessons with a minimal effort The time to prepare lessons and to answer to the students requests was shorten The quality of the didactic materials appears good This procedure permits teacher to show the whole process needed to construct the concepts and present the various issues through exercises and practice

28 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta The students point of view The feedback of the students was positive –The time to prepare the final exam was shorter with respect the same module during the first two years when this procedure was not applied –The students answers to the questionnaires put on evidence their satisfaction – The students shown to understand better the computing programming procedure and the examples of algorithms illustrated by the teacher with the videos

29 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Some considerations We have not the opportunity to supply the students with the handwriting acquisition tool The video didactic materials can be embedded into learning objects but there are problems with the matadata and tagging The compliance with learning standards (like SCORM) is not simple

30 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Forthcomings To enlarge the number of teachers involved To recorder more data and to asses the learning efficacy of this approach using quantitative data analysis To prove this approach when also the students can use a pen-based device To apply standards for tagging video/audio files To include this materials into learning objects repositories To track the students activities when they interact with these materials

31 PLT2007 – Catania (Italy) - Chiazzese & Seta Contacts: Luciano Seta ITD – CNR Palermo (Italy) E-mail: luciano.seta@itd.cnr.it


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