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LEARNING IN NETWORK ENVIRONMENTS: The Role of Learning &Technology wrt Individual and Social Productivity Linda Harasim, PhD Simon Fraser University Vancouver,

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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING IN NETWORK ENVIRONMENTS: The Role of Learning &Technology wrt Individual and Social Productivity Linda Harasim, PhD Simon Fraser University Vancouver,"— Presentation transcript:

1 LEARNING IN NETWORK ENVIRONMENTS: The Role of Learning &Technology wrt Individual and Social Productivity Linda Harasim, PhD Simon Fraser University Vancouver, BC, Canada Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

2 Focus of this Keynote… Introduction to Computer Networks? What are Learning Networks? Historical Case What Type of Learning do Networks Privilege? Practical Case How Can & Do these Online Organizations Benefit Us? Theoretical Framework & Research Data How can We Identify and Document Learning Online? Next Steps Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

3 Introduction to Computer Learning Networks Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

4 Communication and Community The word communication and the word community derive from a common Latin root: communicare, which means to share. Sharing, discourse, communication, and community are the basis of all civilizational advances, scientific disciplines, schools of art, schools of thought, and all aspects of life, society, and work. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

5 What are Online Learning Networks? The term Online Learning Networks is a social-technical term, referring to: Groups of people who are linked together Through Internet and Web-mediated computers For the purposes of collaborating (sharing) Education, Work, Socializing, Knowledge Building, And Communities of Practice, Knowledge, Development, and Social and Cultural Relationships Online Learning Networks are also known as Online Collaborative Learning (or Asynchronous Learning Networks) They can be: Formal Education, NonFormal Education, or Informal Educational Applications Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

6 Historical Case for Network Learning Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

7 1861 Telegraph 1875 Telephone 1919 Radio 1926 Overseas Long Distance 1948 Broadcast Television/ Cable 1961 Communication Satellite 1969 ARPANET Begins 1971: 1972: Computer conferencing 1978: Bulletin boards 1989: Internet 1992: Web Communication Revolution Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

8 1970 s University Courses Supplemented by & Computer Conferencing 1976 First Virtual Community of Practices 1981First Online Course (Adult Education) The Source Participate CC System 1982First Online Program (Executive Education) WBSI Executive Education EIES CC System 1983Networked Classroom Model Emerges (Primary and Secondary Education) ICLN: Research Project in 4 Countries RAPPI: Canada - X-Cultural Project in 5 Countries 1985 : National Geographic Society Kids Network 1987 : AT&T Learning Network 1988 : WIER: Writers In Electronic Residence 1989 : SITP in British Columbia, Canada Education Revolution Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

9 1984First Online Undergraduate Courses Virtual Classroom (NJIT) 1985First Online Graduate Courses 1986Professional Development Communities Emerge Connect-Ed (New School of Social Research) OISE (University of Toronto) OISE Ontario Educators Online Course 1990 Global Lab, Lab Net And Star Schools, TERC 1992 Educators Network of Ontario 1985First Labour Education Network Solinet Education Revolution 1989First Large Scale Online Course Open University (U.K.) Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

10 1989First Online Degree Program UofPhoenix Online 1993First National Educational Network SchoolNet (Canada) 1995 TeleLearningNCE (Canada) 1998 CL-Net (Europe) 1996First Large-Scale TeleLearning Field Trials Virtual-U Education Revolution Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. 2005At least 3.2 online University students in USA 96% of the largest Universities have online offerings 70% have full online programs 80% have online grad offerings s of Millions globally participate in virtual communities for purposes such as social, cultural, medical, professional, cmns.

11 Online Collaborative Learning has predominated in the evolution of elearning: Formal Education Non-Formal Education Informal Education. - Totally Online Mode - Mixed or Blended Mode - Enhanced Mode Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Practical Case : What Types of Learning do Networks Privilege?

12 1.Time Independent 2.Place Independent 3.Many-to-Many 4.Text-based (increasingly mixed mode) 5.Computer/Internet Mediation. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Practical Case : How & to What Degree Can Online Networks Transform and Benefit our Conventional Educational Modalities?

13 Which Aspects Make Network Learning (More) Effective than F2F? 1.Time Independence: 24/7 access to group discussion, course, community Ability to participate at best readiness time More mindful, take as long as needed Equitable cmns, everyone has air time 2.Place Independence: Participate regardless of location Access to local or global conversations 3.Many-to-Many Group collaboration and support Multiple perspectives Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

14 Which Aspects Make Network Learning (More) Effective than F2F? (contd) 4. Text-based (increasingly mixed mode) Avoids discrimination based on socio-economic and physical cues (focus on the message) Archived verbatim transcript enables user to reread the discussion, and enables the instructor, moderator and/or researcher to study the transcripts 5. Computer/Internet Mediation. Access & link to the huge knowledge base of the web Use tools to enhance message quality (spell checker) Can incorporate html, graphics, etc. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

15 Theoretical Case: How does Learning Take Place in Networks? Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

16 Terminology is Key! Three Types of Online Education can be identified, each with VERY different results. Online Distance Education Online Collaborative Learning Online Computer Based Training Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

17 Online Collaborative Learning Many to Many Group Learning Instructor Led Asynchronous Place Independent Text Based Computer Mediated Online Computer Based Training 1 to Computer Courseware Individualized Computer Assessment Asynchronous Multimedia Computer Mediated Online Distance Education 1-Many Mass Learning Tutor Support Asynchronous Place Independent Text Based Computer Mediated Characteristics of Online Approaches Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

18 Completion rates are viewed as one very strong indicator of success in terms of academic quality and user satisfaction. Data shows that courses and programs using Online Collaborative Learning (OCL) yield significant success, unlike Online Distance Education or Online CBT. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

19 Completion Rates Education Modality WorkplaceUniversities High Schools Online Collaborative Learning ODE OCBT 96% Nactel % 20% 92% Virtual Universities 90% 85% 90% VHS % % _ _

20 Collaborative learning models the conversation by which communities of knowledgeable peers construct knowledge. Knowledge (science, learning, culture, invention) is viewed as a construct of the communitys form of discourse, negotiated and maintained by local consensus and subject to endless conversation (Bruffee, 1999; Kuhn, 1970). Role of Collaboration Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

21 ONLINE COLLABORATIVE LEARNING (OCL) refers to CONCEPTUAL CHANGE, LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE BUILDING based on ORGANIZED GROUP INTERACTION facilitated by an Instructor through the Internet, using such pedagogical designs as: ONLINE STUDENT-LED SEMINARS ONLINE STUDENT DISCUSSIONS, DEBATES, ROLE PLAYS, ETC ONLINE TEAM PROJECTS ONLINE CO-PRODUCTION OF POLICIES, DOCUMENTS, POSITION PAPERS, etc., especially with real-world problems. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

22 Small Groups Plenary Discussion & Analysis Approximation to Knowledge Community Role of Faculty/Moderator Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. = Individual = Idea

23 Small Groups Plenary Discussion & Analysis Approximation to Knowledge Community Role of Faculty/Moderator Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Knowledge Building & Social Change = Individual = Idea

24 OCL enables Higher Quality than F2F In recent years, researchers, decision-makers, the public, learners and educators have recognized its potential to be more than as good as traditional classroom learning BETTER THAN, providing far superior quality of learning. Well designed and implemented collaborative e-learning represents powerful gains key indicators such as: Learning Effectiveness Access: Geographical and Temporal Satisfaction Rates: Faculty and Learners Completion Rates Pedagogical, Institutional, Workplace Innovation Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Research Data

25 Indicators: Completion rates Grades Faculty reports Learner reports At the same level of quality or better than non-eLearning. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Learning Effectiveness

26 Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Completion Rates Education Modality WorkplaceUniversities High Schools Online Collaborative Learning ODE OCBT 96% Nactel % 20% 92% Virtual Universities 90% 85% 90% VHS % % _ _

27 New Roles Instructor becomes less a provider & entertainer and more a participant as students take more responsibility for generating input, references, and analysis New Affordances Easier and more direct access to learning process of each student, and group Online collaborative learning approaches and experience improved F2F teaching style The Virtual Professor: User Satisfaction w/ OCL Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

28 Overall Students Report Very Positive" Experience 4 Assert more responsibility for own learning 4 Better understanding of curriculum through collaboration 4 More opportunities for peer interaction & communication 4 Student-centered & -moderated activities emerging 4 Greater control and management of time The Virtual Learner: User Satisfaction w/ OCL Virtual online learning environments dramatically change the patterns of student interaction and support an unprecedented level of learner input, interaction, and exchange. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

29 Gender Difference? Women NOT disenfranchised! 77% of males report a positive experience with VU 81% of females report a positive experience with VU Satisfaction 85% of students reported that they would take another online course Students note that advantages outweigh disadvantages No reports of extra or excessive workload Dissatisfaction Technical Problems and Slow Access Times Communication Anxiety The Virtual Learner New Educational Roles Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

30 Enable institutional renewal to maintain and advance its reputation and survival in a global Knowledge Society. Encourage pedagogical renewal Enable students and faculty to Gain 21st Century skills in Knowledge Work, Collaborative Learning, P/S Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. Socio-Economic Case

31 1. Changing Educational and Work Models! From Knowledge Transmission to Knowledge Building From Passive to Active; Individual to Collaborative From right answers to New or Better Reponses From factory model to Innovation. 2. Changing Educational and Work Environments Closed community to Knowledge Networks Networks are Integral, not supplemental From local to global 3. Changing Societal Role Networks are MAINSTREAM, not Peripheral Networks have impacted all levels & types of education and work SHIFT HAPPENS in EDUCATION & WORK Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

32 Collect/Analyze Standard Educational Data Completion Rates Grades Instructor Satisfaction Student Satisfaction Introduce New Data Sources and ANALYSES Illuminate Learning: Intellectual Convergence and Conceptual Change using Quantitative and Qualitative Data A.ACTIVE LEARNING: QUANTITATIVE Data on Usage Patterns (Message Time, Number, Volume, Interaction, Distribution of Communications) B. CONCEPTUAL CHANGE: QUALITATIVE TRANSCRIPT ANALYSIS of Intellectual Change over time How to Study OCL Effectiveness? Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

33 TIME INDEPENDENT (ASYNCHRONOUS) PLACE INDEPENDENT MANY-TO-MANY (N-N) PRIMARILY TEXT-BASED (W/ INCREASING MULTIMEDIA) Computer/INTERNET-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. WHAT IS NEW & IMPORTANT ABOUT OCL? NEW ATTRIBUTES FOR THE DESIGN AND RESEARCH OF OCL

34 COLLECT USAGE DATA: Identify NEW Usage Patterns Participation is 7 days/week, 24 hours/day Students are active in posting, reading and responding to messages Peer interaction is high WHEREAS IN F2F classes, instructor uses approx. 80%+ of air time; ONLINE students send about 85% of messages Distribution of Communications Far more equitable spread [with fewer outliers] than F2F THE 5 ATTRIBUTES WHICH ENABLE NEW Learning Processes Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

35 Student Participation Data College Level: Psychiatric Nursing Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

36 Active Learning / Participation (based on 32 courses) 85% of the students in all classes login regularly, logging in at least 5 times per week. 77% of the classes have active students, who log in at least 10 times per week on average. 81% of the students in all classes post regularly, writing at least 3 messages per week. Active : 77% Login Regularly : 85% Post Regularly : 81% Virtual Classrooms Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

37 Illumination of learner thoughts and understandings Words are frozen thoughts Verbatim Transcript, available for QT analysis View of Conceptual Change over Time for QTA View of Learner interaction, debate, advances for QTA Audit trail (verbal) of conceptual change, learning, knowledge building available for QTA. WHAT IS NEW & IMPORTANT ABOUT OCL? OCL ENABLES UNPRECEDENTED INSIGHTS INTO LEARNING : QUALITATIVE TRANSCRIPT ANALYSIS Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

38 OCL OFFERS NEW INSIGHTS INTO LEARNING: –Verbatim transcript –The fact that in order to be present each student much participate (i.e., send text messages that are saved in the archive). What is Learning? Conceptual Change! 3 Indicators of Conceptual Change for TA: i.Idea Generating ii.Idea Organizing iii.Intellectual Convergence Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

39 Cognitive Processes in Online Collaborative Learning Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. = Individual = Idea Idea Generating Idea Organizing Intellectual Convergence

40 I.G. I.O. I.C. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. IDEA GENERATING BRAINSTORMING I Democratic Participation IDEA ORGANIZING REFERENCING Re Intellectual Progress INTELLECTUAL CONVERGENCE POSITION STATEMENT We Co- Production

41 OCL TRANSCRIPT ANALYSIS 1. Unit of Analysis is One Message 2. Assess each message as to primarily P1, P2 or P3; 3. Study Change Over Time (Phase 1-->2-->3) per person and by group Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

42 According to Figure 2, we see that the idea organizing phase has the highest percentage of all the three phases (IG,IO and IC), with idea generating following up at 21% and Intellectual Convergence at 6%. In addition to the three distinct phases, many discussants were often found agreeing with previous comments made by other discussants three distinct phases, many discussants were often found agreeing with previous comments made by other discussants and generating their own ideas based upon those agreements at the same time. Due to this response pattern, we've come up with as the Idea Generating/Idea Organizing (IG/IO) Phase, which makes up 35% of the whole seminar. Figure 2. Total Percentage of Each Phase. Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

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44 Cognitive processes in online collaborative learning Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D. = Individual = Idea Idea Generating Idea Organizing Intellectual Convergence Knowledge Building & Social Application

45 Conclusions Its the Pedagogy, not the Technology: –Choose the Pedagogy –Choose or Design the Technology to Support the Pedagogy Next Steps! A Latin American VCoP on Learning Networks A Latin American VCoR on Learning Networks! Challenges and Opportunities Ahead! Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

46 THANK YOU! From Linda Harasim The END Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

47 New Modes of Delivery Adjunct/Enhanced Mode Mixed Mode Totally online New Educational Principles and Processes Collaboration Access Active Learning (Articulation & Engagement) Constructivism and Knowledge Work New Learning Environments / Processes New Attributes: Augmented Learning Domain Many-to-Many Time and Place Independence Text-Based / Media Rich Computer Mediated New Educational Outcomes Active and Interactive Learning Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

48 1.Group Work Toward Local Consensus; 2.Reports and Plenary Discussion toward PLENARY CONSENSUS; 3.Comparison of the Classs Plenary Consensus with the Consensus of a Larger Relevant Knowledge Community. Collaborative Learning Processes and Outcomes Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

49 Indicators: Transcript Analysis Three phases of Conceptual Development: –Idea Generating –Idea Organizing –Idea Convergence Better than non-eLearning. Collaborative Knowledge Work ACCESS: Time and Place- Independence MINDFULNESS: 24/7 to Reflect on and Compose Comments Supports conceptual change Contributes to 21st century skills building such as: Team work Problem solving Innovation Text-Based Archive Enables Transcript Analysis of VERBATIM DISCOURSE Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

50 Indicators: Transcript Analysis Three phases of Conceptual Development: –Idea Generating –Idea Organizing –Idea Convergence Better than non-eLearning. Collaborative Knowledge Work Is increasingly the global standard for eLearning programs Emphasizes conceptual change Contributes to 21st century skills building such as: Team work Problem solving Innovation Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.

51 OCL Pedagogies 1.Student-Led Online Seminars A.Online Class Presentation Introduction 3 Discussion Questions to catalyze 3 Phases - IG > IO > IC B.Facilitating Online Discussions Again based on 3 Phases To Encourage Learning and Knowledge Building C.Discourse Analysis Analyze the transcripts of your Online Seminar to Identify IG > IO > IC 2.Discussants of Online Seminars A.Be aware of the Quality of your Discussion Input B.Respond to the Online Questions and other Input in a way which advances the Quality of the Seminar and Builds Knowledge Copyright 2007: Linda M. Harasim, Ph.D.


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