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English 306A; Harris 1 Words English 306A; Harris 2 Lexicalization English Airplane spoon French Cuillère en forme d'avion German Flugzeuglöffel Bird-like-machine-shaped-concave-instrument-for-eating-with.

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Presentation on theme: "English 306A; Harris 1 Words English 306A; Harris 2 Lexicalization English Airplane spoon French Cuillère en forme d'avion German Flugzeuglöffel Bird-like-machine-shaped-concave-instrument-for-eating-with."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 English 306A; Harris 1 Words

3 English 306A; Harris 2 Lexicalization English Airplane spoon French Cuillère en forme d'avion German Flugzeuglöffel Bird-like-machine-shaped-concave-instrument-for-eating-with

4 English 306A; Harris 3 Lexicalization

5 English 306A; Harris 4 Symbolicity A mode defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning dog (English) chien (French) Hund (German) perro (Spanish) leécaal (Navajo) kurii (Maori) mbwa (Swahili) khwei (Burmese)

6 English 306A; Harris 5 Quiz

7 English 306A; Harris 6 Arbitrariness of symbols

8 English 306A; Harris 7 Arbitrariness of symbols Telephone words Ring Dial Hang up

9 English 306A; Harris 8 Where words come from quark, googol, hobbit, gollum, … From the imagination

10 English 306A; Harris 9 Where words come from meow, bang, crackle, sploosh, ring, … From the world

11 English 306A; Harris 10 Iconicity Sound Ring, rang, rung Splish, splash, sploosh, slosh, slush, sleet Doggie, kitty, itty bitty, teeny weenie Cock-a-doodle-do (English), cocorico (Spanish), kikeriki (German)

12 English 306A; Harris 11 accused, addiction, aerial, alligator, amazement, anchovies, assassination, auspicious, backing, bandit, baseless, beached, bedroom, besmirch, bet, blanket, bloodstained, blushing, bump, buzzers, cake, cater, champion, circumstantial, compromise, consanguineous, courtship, cow, critic, dauntless, dawn, deafening, denote, deracinate, design, dialogue, dickens, discontent, disgraceful, dislocate, divest, domineering, drug, dwindle, elbow, embrace, employer, engagements, enmesh, enrapt, epileptic, equivocal, eventful, excitements, exposure, eyeball, fashionable, film, fixture, foregone, forward, frugal, futurity, generous, gloomy, glow, gnarled, gossip, grovel, gust, hint, hobnob, humour, hurry, hush, immediacy, impedes, importantly, inaudible, instinctively, investments, invulnerable, jaded, jet, jig, juiced, kickshaws, label, lackluster, lapse, laughable, leapfrog, lonely, lower, luggage, lustrous, madcap, majestic, manager, marketable, mimic, misgiving, misquote, monumental, mountaineer, negotiate, nervy, noiseless, numb, obsequiously, ode, olympian, oscene, outbreak, pageantry, pander, partner, pedant, perusal, petition, premeditated, promethean, puke, quarrelsome, questioning, radiance, rancorous, rant, reclusive, reinforcement, remorseless, retirement, reword, rival, roadway, rumination, sacrificial, sanctimonious, savagery, scuffles, secure, shudders, softhearted, splitting, stealthy, submerge, swagger, switch, tardiness, threateningly, tightly, torture, traditional, tranquil, transcendence, trippingly, unaware unclog, unmitigated, unreal, urging, varied, vaulting, viewless, watchdog, widowed, wormhole, worthless, yelping, zany Where words come from From other words

13 English 306A; Harris 12 accused, addiction, aerial, alligator, amazement, anchovies, assassination, auspicious, backing, bandit, baseless, beached, bedroom, besmirch, bet, blanket, bloodstained, blushing, bump, buzzers, cake, cater, champion, circumstantial, compromise, consanguineous, courtship, cow, critic, dauntless, dawn, deafening, denote, deracinate, design, dialogue, dickens, discontent, disgraceful, dislocate, divest, domineering, drug, dwindle, elbow, embrace, employer, engagements, enmesh, enrapt, epileptic, equivocal, eventful, excitements, exposure, eyeball, fashionable, film, fixture, foregone, forward, frugal, futurity, generous, gloomy, glow, gnarled, gossip, grovel, gust, hint, hobnob, humour, hurry, hush, immediacy, impedes, importantly, inaudible, instinctively, investments, invulnerable, jaded, jet, jig, juiced, kickshaws, label, lackluster, lapse, laughable, leapfrog, lonely, lower, luggage, lustrous, madcap, majestic, manager, marketable, mimic, misgiving, misquote, monumental, mountaineer, negotiate, nervy, noiseless, numb, obsequiously, ode, olympian, oscene, outbreak, pageantry, pander, partner, pedant, perusal, petition, premeditated, promethean, puke, quarrelsome, questioning, radiance, rancorous, rant, reclusive, reinforcement, remorseless, retirement, reword, rival, roadway, rumination, sacrificial, sanctimonious, savagery, scuffles, secure, shudders, softhearted, splitting, stealthy, submerge, swagger, switch, tardiness, threateningly, tightly, torture, traditional, tranquil, transcendence, trippingly, unaware unclog, unmitigated, unreal, urging, varied, vaulting, viewless, watchdog, widowed, wormhole, worthless, yelping, zany Where words come from From other words Semasiological Permutations of form borrowing combining reducing (converting) Onomasiological Permutations of meaning metaphoric metonymic specialization generalization

14 English 306A; Harris 13 Where words come from Semasiological processes borrowing combining morphological (tune in later) compounding acronyms/abbreviations blending reducing clipping acronyms/abbreviations blending (converting)

15 English 306A; Harris 14 Semasiological processes Borrowing skunk chocolate pyjamas bungalo typhoon tofu banana banjo jazz … The form inevitably changes (to accommodate the borrowing languages phonology), and the meaning also shifts in various ways

16 English 306A; Harris 15 Semasiological processes--combining Compounds airplane fire engine greenhouse tie-in blackboard wet suit

17 English 306A; Harris 16 Semasiological processes--combining Compounds Stress patterns (like single words, not multiple words) Orthographic possibilities Glued together Hyphenated Nothing (just stress)

18 English 306A; Harris 17 Semasiological processes--reducing Clipping professor hamburger demonstration facsimile submarine sandwich delicatessan world wide web internet

19 English 306A; Harris 18 Semasiological processes--reducing Clipping professor hamburger demonstration faxcsimile submarine sandwich delicatessen world wide web internet

20 English 306A; Harris 19 Semasiological processes--reducing Clipping Often a form of jargon Efficiency In-group certification

21 English 306A; Harris 20 Semasiological processes--combining and reducing Acronymns/Abbreviation radar scuba snafu fubar twain CBC USA WW1, WW2 WWW PR acronymns; pronoun- cable letter- enunciation

22 English 306A; Harris 21 Semasiological processes--combining and reducing Acronymns/Abbreviation Jargons, Argots, Slangs Similar to clipping Efficiency In-group certification but Stronger groupiness More exclusive With clipping the linkages are more apparent, so more easily recoverable by outsiders; acronyms and abbreviations require secret information, a key.

23 English 306A; Harris 22 Semasiological processes--combining and reducing Acronymns/Abbreviation txt msg ortholect AFAIKAs far as I know ASAPAs soon as possible B4Before CUL8TRSee you later BAMBy all means BAUBusiness as usual BCNUBe seeing you BDBrain-dead BTDTBeen there, done that …

24 English 306A; Harris 23 Semasiological processes--combining and reducing Acronymns/Abbreviation txt msg ortholect AFAIKAs far as I know ASAPAs soon as possible B4Before CUL8TRSee you later BAMBy all means BAUBusiness as usual BCNUBe seeing you BDBrain-dead BTDTBeen there, done that … Rebus principle 4 = [for] 8 = [ejt]

25 English 306A; Harris 24 Semasiological processes--converting Conversion (double-dipping) permít contést survéy butter ship toast nail pérmit cóntest súrvey dirty empty clean paint

26 English 306A; Harris 25 Semasiological processes--converting Conversion (double-dipping) Syntactic context Infallible diagnostic. He put butter on the toast. vs. He buttered the toast.

27 English 306A; Harris 26 semasiological/onomasiological processes Blends smoke + fog motor + hotel aerobic + exercise breakfast + lunch information + entertainment education + entertainment Northern Telecom

28 English 306A; Harris 27 semasiological/onomasiological processes Blends smoke + fog motor + hotel aerobic + exercise breakfast + lunch information + entertainment education + entertainment Northern + Telecom

29 English 306A; Harris 28 semasiological/onomasiological processes Blends smog motel aerobicise brunch infotainment edutainment NorTel

30 English 306A; Harris 29 Where words come from Semasiological Permutations of form borrowing combining reducing (converting) Onomasiological Permutations of meaning metaphoric metonymic specialization generalization similarity association narrowing broadening

31 English 306A; Harris 30 Metaphor A new signified based on comparison broadcast (to cast out seeds to send out a signal) mouse (little squeaky rodent computer input device)

32 English 306A; Harris 31 Metonymy A new signified based on physical or conceptual association jaw (cheek pointy boney thing underneath cheeks) horn (boney animal projection (adapted to make sounds) musical instrument)

33 English 306A; Harris 32 Specialization Narrowing of signified pill (a small, ingestible unit of solid medication a small, ingestible unit of birth-control medication) school (any learning institution a specific type of learning--K-12)

34 English 306A; Harris 33 Specialization hound from hund, all domestic canines meat from meat, all edible substances deer from deor, wild beast write from writtan, to scratch girl from gerol, young person

35 English 306A; Harris 34 Generalization Broadening of signified ship (send by boat send by any means of transport) school (learning institution an intellectual or creative group)

36 English 306A; Harris 35 Generalization dog from dogge, a canine breed used for hunting holiday from haligdæ, a holy day place from platea, broad street pants from pantaloons, long, baggy trousers virtue from virtu, manliness

37 English 306A; Harris 36 Polysemy Conceptual processes also generate new senses of the same word.

38 English 306A; Harris 37 A radial network The polysemy of school school of optometry cubist school school begins at 8:40 school of fish the whole school went to the game she is going to grad school metonymy metaphor specialization generalization

39 English 306A; Harris 38 New terms

40 English 306A; Harris 39 mallrat Teen or tween who spends large amounts of time hanging out in shopping malls

41 English 306A; Harris 40 podcast A digital audio download of autonomous radio programming.

42 English 306A; Harris 41 metrosexual A straight man with the good taste of a gay: scrupulous about his grooming; big consumer of cosmetic products and high fashion suits.

43 English 306A; Harris 42 retrosexual Antonym of metrosexual: a straight guy who is scared of hair gel, doesnt know the difference between teal and aqua, wears sweats.

44 English 306A; Harris 43 adulescent An adult dressing/carrying on like a kid

45 English 306A; Harris 44 kidult See adulescent

46 English 306A; Harris 45 cube farm An office filled with cubicles.

47 English 306A; Harris 46 prairie dogging When someone yells or drops something loudly in a Cube Farm, and everyone's head pops up over the walls to see what's going on.

48 English 306A; Harris 47 assmosis The process by which some people seem to absorb success and advancement by kissing up to the boss rather than working hard.

49 English 306A; Harris 48 salmon day The experience of spending an entire day swimming upstream only to be screwed and die in the end.

50 English 306A; Harris 49 familymoon A holiday taken after the wedding by a bride, a groom, and their children from previous marriages.

51 English 306A; Harris 50 mouse potato The on-line version of the couch potato.

52 English 306A; Harris 51 mousetrapping A technique that forces a user to remain on a particular (usually pornographic or gambling) web page.

53 English 306A; Harris 52 macarena page A web page capitalizing on a current fad; usually full of fluff with a short shelf life.

54 English 306A; Harris 53 rain dance A chiefly ceremonial sequence of actions performed in the hope that they will solve a computer problem.

55 English 306A; Harris 54 percussive maintenance Whacking an electronic device to get it to work again.

56 English 306A; Harris 55 generica Features of the North American landscape that are exactly the same no matter where one is, such as fast food joints, strip malls, subdivisions.

57 English 306A; Harris 56 vasectomy zoning Zoning laws and other restrictions that aim to keep children out of an area or neighborhood.

58 English 306A; Harris 57 CLM Career Limiting Move, like doing an uncannily accurate imitation of your boss while she is standing right behind you.

59 English 306A; Harris 58 Semasiology Formal processes Morphology metrosexual, retrosexual, podcast (?) Blend assmosis, adulescent, kidult, familymoon, generica, podcast (?) Conversion prairie dog[ging], mousetrap[ping] Abbreviation CLM Compounding mall rat

60 English 306A; Harris 59 Semasiology Formal processes Nada rain dance, cube farm, macarena page, salmon day, mouse potato, percussive maintenance, vasectomy zoning Purely onomasiological rain dance: new context of use; new sense; new idiom cube farm, macarena page, salmon day, mouse potato, percussive maintenance, vasectomy zoning: new adjectival modifications; the creation of new phrases, or idioms, but not new words

61 English 306A; Harris 60 Onomasiology Conceptual processes Metaphor mall rat, kidult, adulescent, rain dance, percussive maintenance, prairie dogging, mousetrapping, cube farm, salmon day, mouse potato Metonymy mall rat, macarena page, mouse potato, cube farm, mousetrapping, metrosexual, retrosexual, assmosis, vasectomy zoning Purely semasiological CLM

62 English 306A; Harris 61 Onomasiology Conceptual processes Metaphor mall rat, kidult, adulescent, rain dance, mousetrapping, percussive maintenance, prairie dogging, cube farm, salmon day, mouse potato Metonymy mall rat, macarena page, mousetrapping, metrosexual, retrosexual, assmosis, cube farm, vasectomy zoning, mouse potato Purely semasiological CLM

63 English 306A; Harris 62 Where words and senses come from Onomasiological processes Metaphoric Meaning shift on the basis of similarity Metonymic Meaning shift on the basis of association Specialization A narrowing of meaning Generalization A broadening of meaning

64 English 306A; Harris 63 Signifier Semasiology Concept evoked synonymy antonymy Word form polysemy homophony dog yappy, hairy quaduped Signified Onomasiology

65 English 306A; Harris 64 Onomasiology Synonymy Lawyer, Attorney, Barrister, Solicitor, Shyster, Ambulance- chaser,...

66 English 306A; Harris 65 Onomasiology Word formation Lawyer, Attorney, Barrister, Solicitor, Shyster, Ambulance- chaser,... a)metaphor b)metonymy c)iconicity d)all of the above e)none of the above

67 English 306A; Harris 66 Semasiology Word formation Lawyer, Attorney, Barrister, Solicitor, Shyster, Ambulance- chaser,... a)blend b)clipping c)morphological d)compounding e)conversion

68 English 306A; Harris 67 Onomasiology Antonymy black/white, up/down, boy/girl, stop/go, cat/dog, student/professor,...

69 English 306A; Harris 68 Semasiology Homophony (hoe/ho) Two (or more) words (therefore, two or more meanings) that happen to sound the same; a coincidence of form. Ho as in prostitute. Hoe as in garden implement.

70 English 306A; Harris 69 Semasiology Homophony (bear/bare/bear) Two (or more) words (therefore, two or more meanings) that happen to sound the same; a product of coincidence. Bear as in ursidae. Bare as in naked. Bear as in carry.

71 English 306A; Harris 70 Semasiology Polysemy (bear) Tolerate (I cant bear his jokes.) Give testimony (I bear witness.) Have as an identification (We bear the same name.) Give birth (She can bear children.) Produce as yield (It has been known to bear fruit.) Support the weight (That pillar bears the weight of the whole first floor.) Maintain (They bear me a grudge.)

72 English 306A; Harris 71 Semasiology Polysemy Meaning extension Metonymy Metaphor Specialization Generalization association comparison narrowing broadening

73 English 306A; Harris 72 SemasiologyOnomasiology Word Formation (building new signified/signifier relations) MorphologicalMetaphor CompoundingMetonymy ConversionSpecialization ClippingGeneralization Blending Semantic Categories (classifying signified/signifier relations) PolysemySynonymy HomophonyAntonymy

74 English 306A; Harris 73 Word classes Content wordsFunction words Carry the semantic burden; less important syntactically. Open class. Do much of the syntactic syntactic work; relatively lightweight semantically. Closed class.

75 English 306A; Harris 74 Word classes Content wordsFunction words Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Determiners Particles Qualifiers Degree words Pronouns Etc. etc. etc.

76 English 306A; Harris 75 Word class diagnostics Semantic What sort of signifieds does the category evoke? Morphological What shape can the signifiers have (which affixes, if any, are legitimate)? Syntactic Which other words does it co-occur with, and in what order?

77 English 306A; Harris 76 English Nouns Semantic Person, place, or thing. Morphological Takes plural and possessive suffixes. dogs, dogs Syntactic Follows articles and adjectives, in that order. a dog, the dog, a big dog, the green dog

78 English 306A; Harris 77 Semantic A quality, attribute, or property (of a person, place, or thing). Morphological Takes comparative and superlative suffixes. big, bigger, biggest Syntactic Precedes nouns, follows degree word. The very big boy. English Adjectives

79 English 306A; Harris 78 English verbs Semantic An action or state.

80 English 306A; Harris 79 English verbs Semantic An action or state. nod talk listen feel jump run hit manipulate … know agree hear feel believe doubt recognize hate …

81 English 306A; Harris 80 English verbs Morphological Take four suffixes: past tensenodded 3sg presentnods past participle(has) nodded, (had) nodded pres. participle(is) nodding, (was) nodding

82 English 306A; Harris 81 English verbs Syntactic Can follow an auxiliary verb. He can nod his head. She will know that he is looking for his puppy.

83 English 306A; Harris 82 English adverbs Semantic Modifies (in manner, time or location) an action or state.

84 English 306A; Harris 83 English adverbs Morphological (though many of them end in -ly.)

85 English 306A; Harris 84 English adverbs Morphological (though many of them end in -ly.) Inflectional derivational

86 English 306A; Harris 85 English adverbs Syntactic Follows a verb. They nod vigorously. (Weak test, but compare They nod friendly)

87 English 306A; Harris 86 Function words Highly specific tests for individual word category; treat them as belonging to one big bag, not content words.

88 English 306A; Harris 87 / wordcategories.pdf EnglishInflectionalAffixes.pdf

89 English 306A; Harris 88 Word classes Content Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Function Everything else

90 English 306A; Harris 89 Words Linguistic building blocks Word formation processes Semasiology Onomasiology Word classes


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