# Failure By Design www.failurebydesign.info Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org.

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Failure By Design www.failurebydesign.info Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org

Purpose Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse Examine different types of wave motion and how aerodynamic effects destroyed a structure Hyatt Hotel Walkway Collapse Use your analytical and deductive skills to speculate about what caused a structural disaster

Hyatt Walkway Collapse Kansas City Hyatt Regency hotel opened in 1980 40-story tower Function block Connecting atrium with three elevated walkways 117 ft (36 m) long

The Disaster Atrium crowded with 1500-2000 people for a dance competition Second and fourth-floor walkways collapsed 114 people killed, over 200 injured July 17, 1981 (one year after opening) Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Disaster

The Disaster 2 nd- floor walkway designed to hang from 4 th -floor walkway, which was hung from roof by three rods along each side of its 117 ft (36 m) length 3 rd floor walkway was separate and survived Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Disaster

The Puzzle Since both the 4 th and 2 nd floor walkways fell, which parts of the walkways could have failed? Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle

The Puzzle What evidence would you look for to decide which part did fail? Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle

Hyatt Walkway Collapse – The Puzzle Hyatt Design Animation Please be patient…large animated GIF file takes awhile to load…

The Puzzle Have you decided which part most likely failed? Next is an important clue. Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle

The Puzzle: A Clue Design Change Original design used single rods to support both walkways, but they would have been awkward to install and thread. Each rod would have connected to 4 th -floor walkway as shown. Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle: A Clue

The Puzzle: A Clue Design Change As-built, the single long rods were replaced by a pair of shorter rods connecting to the 4 th -floor walkway as shown. Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle: A Clue

Hyatt Walkway Collapse – The Puzzle: A Clue Hyatt Design Change

The Puzzle: A Clue How did the design change affect the physics of the walkway connection? Now which part do you think failed? It is time to view the evidence… Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle: A Clue

The Puzzle: Solution The 4 th -floor hanger rods were found intact, with nuts and washers in place. Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle: Solution

The Puzzle: Solution The 4 th -floor box beams were separated at the ends, with the 2 nd -floor hangers still in place. Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle: Solution

Hyatt Walkway Collapse – The Puzzle: Solution Hyatt Failure Animation Please be patient…large animated GIF file takes awhile to load…

The Puzzle: Solution The design change doubled the load on the 4 th -floor box beams. Original DesignAs-Built Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Puzzle: Solution

The Consequences Engineer of record and project engineer had their Missouri professional engineering licenses revoked Engineering company lost its certificate of authority as an engineering firm Millions of dollars in damages awarded in civil cases brought by victims and their families Hyatt Walkway Collapse The Consequences

Design Improvements Add more hanger rods and box beams Use larger washers Install bearing plates to move load to sides of box beams Flip box beams back-to-back and use web stiffeners Hyatt atrium now has one walkway supported by floor columns Hyatt Walkway Collapse Design Improvements

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse 1940 suspension bridge in Washington state

Location Tacoma Bridge Collapse Location

Location Link between Olympic Peninsula and mainland Tacoma Bridge Collapse Location

Design 2800 ft center span Third-longest in the world in 1940 (5000 ft; 2800 ft center span) Quite narrow (39 feet; two lanes) Bridge deck supported by vertical cables hung from two long cables strung from one shore, over two towers, to other shore Tacoma Bridge Collapse Design

Design To reduce costs, sides constructed of solid 8-foot tall I-beams rather than typical open trusses Tacoma Bridge Collapse Design

Design concrete sidewalk two-lane concrete roadway curb I-beams 8 ft 39 ft Tacoma Bridge Collapse Design

Early Symptoms Bridge nicknamed Galloping Gertie by drivers who would be startled as cars in front of them would bounce in and out of view. Engineers spent four months trying to reduce the vibrations. Tacoma Bridge Collapse Early Symptoms

Early Symptoms Over several months, additions were made to reduce deck bounce Added stiffening cables Added cable stays on sides, connecting main cable to deck Added hydraulic dampers Each would fail, one catastrophically (snapped) (seals ruined when bridge sandblasted for painting) (one side slipped on day of collapse) Tacoma Bridge Collapse Early Symptoms

Wave medium moves perpendicular to direction of wave travel Transverse Waves Transverse waves Nodes are where medium does not move Antinodes are where the medium moves most Tacoma Bridge Collapse Early Symptoms

Transverse Waves Gerties Transverse Wave Types Towers were nodes Various types: 0 to 8 nodes between towers Most common type 0 nodes between towers Double amplitude 2 feet Frequency 8 vibrations/min Highest amplitude type 2 nodes between towers Double amplitude 5 feet Frequency 12 vib/min Tacoma Bridge Collapse Early Symptoms

The Disaster Midnight storm weakens bridge deck and cable stays November 7, 1940 (four months after opening) Three people in two cars trapped on bridge as torsion began; they left cars and crawled to safety; one scared dog had to be left behind and later died when bridge fell. Mid-morning wind reaches 40-45 mph Bridge closed at 10 am and bridge begins torsional wave motion Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Disaster

Torsional Waves Torsional (twisting) waves Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Disaster

Tacoma Bridge Collapse – The Disaster Collapse Movie Please be patient…large animated GIF file takes awhile to load… Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Disaster

Center Span Breaks 11 am: Center span finally breaks apart Please be patient…large animated GIF file takes awhile to load… Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Disaster

The Puzzle Why did this bridge oscillate so much? Why did this bridge fail when other, longer bridges didnt? What design changes might have prevented this failure? Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Oscillation Solid I-beam girders, unlike trusses, did not allow wind to flow through Flexible bridge oscillated vertically (transverse waves) due to vertical forces from vortex shedding as wind flowed around side girders Why did this bridge oscillate so much? Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Oscillation Torsional waves began when center cable stays on one side failed, allowing cable to slip back and forth As bridge deck tilted, its angle into the wind changed and created new vortices that steadily increased its twisting until failure Why did this bridge oscillate so much? Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Depth Ratios This shallow bridge was more flexible than other suspension bridges of the time Why did this bridge fail when other, longer bridges didnt? BridgeDepth/SpanRatio Tacoma Narrows8 ft / 2800 ft1 : 350 Bronx-Whitestone11 ft / 2300 ft1 : 209 Golden Gate25 ft / 4200 ft1 : 168 George Washington36 ft / 3500 ft1 : 97 Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Width Ratios This bridge was also narrow, again making it more flexible than others Why did this bridge fail when other, longer bridges didnt? BridgeWidth/SpanRatio Tacoma Narrows39 ft / 2800 ft1 : 72 Bronx-Whitestone74 ft / 2300 ft1 : 31 Golden Gate89 ft / 4200 ft1 : 47 George Washington106 ft / 3500 ft1 : 33 Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Deflection Comparisons More Vertical Deflection Why did this bridge fail when other, longer bridges didnt? More Torsional Deflection Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Design Changes What design changes might have prevented this failure? Use open trusses instead of I-beams Increase depth/span & width/span ratios Increase bridge weight Install better dampeners Bridge rebuilt in 1950 with these changes; new bridge has lasted >50 years Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

New Bridge Comparison What design changes might have prevented this failure? Old bridgeNew bridge Deck designSolid I-beamsOpen trusses Depth/span ratio1 : 3501 : 112 Width/span ratio1 : 721 : 47 Bridge weight on cables 11,250 tons (1.0 x 10 8 N) 18,160 tons (1.6 x 10 8 N) Hydraulic Dampers At towers (broken) At towers & midspan Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

New Bridge Comparison What design changes might have prevented this failure? 1940 Bridge1950 Bridge Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Comparison Photos Old vs. New Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

Comparison Photos Old vs. New Tacoma Bridge Collapse The Puzzle

2007 Bridge Tacoma Bridge Collapse In 2007 a new bridge opened adjacent to the 1950 bridge to alleviate traffic congestion.

References 1 References (1 of 6 pages)USED IN ACCORDANCE WITH FAIR USE PROVISIONS OF COPYRIGHT LAW FOR NON-PROFIT EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES Andradne, R. (2000). Gerties last gallop [Online]. Available: http://www.gateline.com/gertie/index.htm or http://www.gateline.com/gertie/Galloping%20Gertie.zip [2001, January 27].http://www.gateline.com/gertie/index.htm http://www.gateline.com/gertie/Galloping%20Gertie.zip Billah, K.Y., & Scanlan, R.H. (1991, February). Resonance, Tacoma Narrows bridge failure, and undergraduate physics textbooks. American Journal of Physics, 59(2), 118-124. Available: http://www.ketchum.org/billah/Billah-Scanlan.pdf [2001, January 27]. http://www.ketchum.org/billah/Billah-Scanlan.pdf Edge, R. (1998). String and sticky tape - and other fun experiments [Online]. Proceedings of the Hands on - Experiments in Physics Education International Conference. Duisburg, Germany. Available: http://ubntint.uni-duisburg.de/hands-on/files/autoren/edge/edge.htm [February 8, 2001]. http://ubntint.uni-duisburg.de/hands-on/files/autoren/edge/edge.htm Elliot, E. (undated). Tacoma Narrows bridge video [Online]. Available: http://www.camerashoptacoma.com/narrows.asp [2001, February 4]. http://www.camerashoptacoma.com/narrows.asp Expedia, Inc. (2000). Tacoma, Washington [Online map]. Available: http://maps.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll [2001, February 10].http://maps.expedia.com/pub/agent.dll Exponent, Inc. (undated). Hyatt walkway collapse [QuickTime Video; Online]. Available: http://www.exponent.com/multimedia/cases/hyatt.html [2001, January 27]. http://www.exponent.com/multimedia/cases/hyatt.html Failure By Design

References 2 References (2 of 6 pages) Fuller, R.G., Lang, C.R., & Lang, R.H. (2000). Twin views of the Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse. College Park, MD: American Association of Physics Teachers [http://www.aapt.org].http://www.aapt.org Gies, J. (1963). Bridges and men. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Groutt, P. (1996). University of Maryland physics lecture-demonstration facility [Online]. Available: http://jedlik.phy.bme.hu/~hartlein/physics.umd.edu/deptinfo/facilities/lecdem/lecdem.htm#hp[2001, February 8]. http://jedlik.phy.bme.hu/~hartlein/physics.umd.edu/deptinfo/facilities/lecdem/lecdem.htm#hp Hanley-Wood LLC. (2000). Q&A: squash blocks and web stiffeners [Online]. Available: http://www.jlconline.com/jlc/qana/framing/squash_blocks/ [2001, February 10]. http://www.jlconline.com/jlc/qana/framing/squash_blocks/ Harris, C.E. & Rabins, M.J. (1992). Engineering ethics: The Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkways collapse (NSF Grant Number DIR-9012252) [original version of Lowery (1999) online document]. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, Department of Philosophy and Department of Mechanical Engineering. Institute for Structural Analysis. (1997). Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940) failure [Online]. Available: http://www.cis.tugraz.at/ifb/img/others/tacoma/tacoma.htm [2001, January 28]. http://www.cis.tugraz.at/ifb/img/others/tacoma/tacoma.htm James, M.N. (undated). Failure as a design criterion [Online]. Available: http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/FailureCases/Failure.htm [2001, February 5]. http://www.tech.plym.ac.uk/sme/FailureCases/Failure.htm Jensen, J.N. (2000). Civil engineering case study [Online]. Available: http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~jjensen/cie.htm [2001, February 17]. http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~jjensen/cie.htm Failure By Design

References 3 References (3 of 6 pages) Ketchum, M. (undated). Mark Ketchums bridge engineering page [Online]. Available: http://www.ketchum.org/bridges.html [2001, February 8]. http://www.ketchum.org/bridges.html Koughan, J. (1996). The collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge, evaluation of competing theories of its demise, and the effects of the disaster on succeeding bridge designs [Online]. Available: http://www.me.utexas.edu/~uer/papers/paper_jk.html [2001, January 27]. http://www.me.utexas.edu/~uer/papers/paper_jk.html Lank, S., Robinson, M., Sevigny, S., Steger, M., & Tsai, J. (1997). Smash and crash: The Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse [Online]. Available: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jtt3e/hyatt/paper.htm [2001, February 17].http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jtt3e/hyatt/paper.htm Lou, B. (undated). Bridge and resonance [Online]. Available: http://instruction.ferris.edu/loub/media/BRIDGE/Bridge.htm [2001, February 4]. http://instruction.ferris.edu/loub/media/BRIDGE/Bridge.htm Lowery, L. (1999). Engineering ethics: The Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkways collapse [Online]. Available: http://lowery.tamu.edu/ethics/ethics/hyatt/hyatt1.htm and http://lowery.tamu.edu/ethics/ethics/hyatt/hyatt2.htm [2001, January 28]. http://lowery.tamu.edu/ethics/ethics/hyatt/hyatt1.htm http://lowery.tamu.edu/ethics/ethics/hyatt/hyatt2.htm Martin, R. (1999a). Hyatt Regency walkway collapse [Online]. Available: http://www.eng.uab.edu/cee/REU_NSF99/hyatt.htm [2001, January 28]. http://www.eng.uab.edu/cee/REU_NSF99/hyatt.htm Martin, R. (1999b). Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse [Online]. Available: http://www.eng.uab.edu/cee/REU_NSF99/tacoma.htm [2001, January 28]. http://www.eng.uab.edu/cee/REU_NSF99/tacoma.htm Failure By Design

References 4 References (4 of 6 pages) Meador, G. (1997). Activity #2: Slinky waves [Online]. Available: http://www.teachingtools.com/SlinkyShindig/activ2.html [2001, February 8]. http://www.teachingtools.com/SlinkyShindig/activ2.html Moore, K.S. (1999). Large amplitude torsional oscillations in a nonlinearly suspended beam: A theoretical and numerical investigation [Online]. Available: http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~ksmoore/ [2001, February 4].http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~ksmoore/ Neyman, P. (undated). Torsion wave representation [Online]. Available: http://sps1.phys.vt.edu/~pat- man/LiNC/movies/torsion.mov [2001, February 5].http://sps1.phys.vt.edu/~pat- man/LiNC/movies/torsion.mov Petroski, H. (1985). To engineer is human: The role of failure in successful design. New York: St. Martins Press. Available for purchase at: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0679734163http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0679734163 Petroski, H. (1994). Design paradigms: Case histories of error and judgment in engineering. New York: Cambridge University Press. Available for purchase at: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521466490 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521466490 Rogers, K. (1997). The Tacoma Narrows bridge disaster [Online]. Available: http://137.142.19.40/seconded/second/Kent/Kent.html [February 8, 2001]. http://137.142.19.40/seconded/second/Kent/Kent.html Russell, D. (2000). Vibration and wave animations [Online]. Available: http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos.html [2001, February 4]. http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos.html Failure By Design

References 5 References (5 of 6 pages) Scott, S. (undated). Tacoma Narrows bridge [Online]. Available: http://people.mn.mediaone.net/sscott2/Text_Files/gertie.html [2001, February 8]. http://people.mn.mediaone.net/sscott2/Text_Files/gertie.html Smith, D. (1974, March 29). A case study and analysis of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure [Online]. Unpublished manuscript, Carleton University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa, Canada. Available: http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/Exhibits/Tacoma_Narrows/DSmith/photos.html [2001, February 7].http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/Exhibits/Tacoma_Narrows/DSmith/photos.html Tan, B.T., Thompson, M.C., & Hourigan, K. (1998). Simulated Flow around Long Rectangular Plates under Cross Flow Perturbations [Online]. International Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 2(1). Available: http://sibley.mae.cornell.edu/IJFD/1998_vol2/paper1/paper1.html [2001, February 8]. http://sibley.mae.cornell.edu/IJFD/1998_vol2/paper1/paper1.html Underwater Atmospheric Systems. (undated). Tacoma Narrows bridge [Online]. Available: http://www.nwrain.com/~newtsuit/recoveries/narrows/narrows.htm [2001, February 8]. http://www.nwrain.com/~newtsuit/recoveries/narrows/narrows.htm United States Geological Survey. (1992, May 13). Tacoma, Washington, United States [Online image]. Available: http://terraserver.microsoft.com/image.asp?S=14&T=1&X=168&Y=1635&Z=10&W=2 [2001, February 10]. http://terraserver.microsoft.com/image.asp?S=14&T=1&X=168&Y=1635&Z=10&W=2 Failure By Design

References 6 References (6 of 6 pages) Washington State Department of Transportation. (2008). SR 16 - New Tacoma Narrows Bridge [Online]. Available: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/projects/sr16narrowsbridge/ [2008, March 6]. Washington State Department of Transportation. (2007a). NTPAW Tacoma Narrows Bridge Tour [Online image]. Available: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wsdot/1129855059/ [2008, March 6]. Washington State Department of Transportation. (2007b). View from the Top [Online image]. Available: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wsdot/829349869/ [2008, March 6]. The author thanks the Exponent engineering company (http://www.exponent.com) and its webmaster for agreeing to provide their animation of the Hyatt Regency walkway collapse.http://www.exponent.com Failure By Design

www.failurebydesign.info Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org All images used under the educational fair use provisions of copyright law. This presentation is Creative Commons licensed for free distribution for non-commercial use when attributed to Granger Meador

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