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The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois Shaping Our World Technology: PowerPoint Presentations for.

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Presentation on theme: "The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois Shaping Our World Technology: PowerPoint Presentations for."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois Shaping Our World Technology: PowerPoint Presentations for

2 6 Structures © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

3 Objectives Recognize many different types of structures, both natural ones and those made by humans. Recall that structures made by humans include bridges, buildings, dams, harbors, roads, towers, and tunnels. Identify the loads acting on structures. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

4 Objectives Analyze the forces acting on a structure. Demonstrate how structures can be designed to withstand loads. Design and make a product that incorporates structural principles. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

5 Introduction Structures are all around us. We build them to live in or to cross a river. We build them to carry wires, to receive radio waves, and to transport people. Houses, bridges, and towers are not the only structures; airplanes, boats, and cars are structures, too. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

6 Introduction The main purpose of a structure is to enclose and define a space. At times, however, a structure is built to connect two points. This is the case with bridges and elevators. Other structures are meant to hold back natural forces, as in the case of dams and retaining walls. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

7 Introduction Living organisms, such as trees and our bodies, are natural structures. A giant redwood tree must be rigid enough to carry its own weight. Yet it is able to sway in high winds. Grass is flexible, because it springs back after it is stepped on. The bones of a skeleton have movable joints. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

8 Discussion What structures have you built? What was their intended purpose? What materials and tools did you use? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

9 Commonalities What do all structures have in common? –They all have a number of parts, which are connected. –The parts provide support so the structures can serve their purpose. –One important job of all structures is to support a load. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

10 Activity 1.Make a list of three animals. 2.Make an illustrated poster showing the structures they create. 3.Include the materials used to build each. What is the purpose of each structure? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

11 Loads Bridges support vehicles. Vehicles support passengers. Both also support the materials from which they are built. (Ford, Ecritek) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

12 Types of Structures Structures vary greatly in size and type. All structures must be able to support a load without collapsing. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Ecritek, TEC)

13 Static Loads Static loads may be caused by the weight of the structure itself. They are also caused by objects placed in or on the structure. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

14 Dynamic Loads The mass of a person walking across the floor creates a dynamic load. Other dynamic loads include the force of a gust of wind pushing against a tall building and a truck crossing a bridge. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

15 Compression and Tension Bending causes compression and tension stress. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

16 Minimize Bending The design and construction of structures must minimize the effects of bending. Parts must be shaped so the forces of tension and compression are balanced. These energies are then said to be in a state of equilibrium, and there is little chance to bend. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

17 Discussion What geometric shapes can you identify in structures? Which geometric shape appears more often than others? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

18 Withstanding Loads What shape appears most often? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (TEC)

19 Withstanding Loads The top and bottom surfaces of a beam are subject to the greatest compression and tension. After members have been shaped to resist compression and tension, they must be connected in a way that minimizes bending. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

20 The Importance of Triangles The frame in the figure is made of four connected members. If a load is applied at A, the frame retains shape. However, if a load is applied at a corner, the frame will collapse. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

21 The Importance of Triangles A rigid diagonal member (from corner to corner) has been added. The frame now retains its shape when a load is applied at the corners. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

22 Tie and Strut At corner B, the load causes the diagonal to be in tension. A rigid member in tension is called a tie. When the load is applied at corner C, the diagonal is in compression. It is a strut. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

23 Shear A third force acting on structures is called shear. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

24 Bending Bridges A major problem with bridges is that they bend. One common way to prevent a beam bridge from bending is to support the center with a pier. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

25 Piers Piers may not allow the passage of ships. Sometimes the river is too deep, runs too swiftly, or has a soft bed with no firm foundation. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

26 Other Solutions Making the beam thicker would cause it to sag from its own weight. The beam could be strengthened in the middle. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

27 Simple Trusses Truss bridges make use of the triangle in their design. The mass of a truck crossing causes the bridge roadway to bend. Member A moves down. This pulls down on B and C, pulling them toward the end of the bridge. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

28 Trusses Most truss bridges are more complex than the simple truss. Many triangular frames are used to construct them. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

29 Stays Stays are cables that provide support from above. Notice that the pylons are in compression and the stays are in tension. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

30 Suspension Bridges The bridge deck is suspended from hangers attached to a continuous cable. Cables secured to the ground transfer mass from the deck to the top of the towers. Compression transfers the mass to the ground. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

31 Other Bridges There are many other types of bridges. Their design follows the same general principle: try to reduce bending. Two of the most common types are arch bridges and cantilever bridges. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

32 Arch Bridges Mass is transferred outward along two curving paths. The supports where the arch meets the ground are called abutments. They resist outward thrust and keep the bridge up. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Ecritek)

33 Cantilever Bridges A beam can support a load at one end provided that the opposite end is anchored or fixed. A cantilever bridge has two cantilevers with a short beam to complete the span. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. (Ecritek)

34 Steel and Concrete The most common bridge materials are steel and concrete. Steel is fairly inexpensive, strong under compression and tension, but needs maintenance to prevent corrosion. Concrete is economical and resists fire and corrosion but is weak under tension. It can be strengthened with steel rods. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

35 Steel Steel cables made of wire rope are used to support the mass of the roadway and the traffic load on it. The towers of many bridges are made of steel. Steel trusses give rigidity to the bridge deck. They also resist bending. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

36 Reinforced Concrete To overcome the weakness of concrete, it is reinforced with steel rods wherever it is in tension. Reinforced concrete is used in many bridges. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

37 Activity 1.Go to 2.Search for Building Big. 3.Click on Bridges. 4.Click on The Bridge Challenge. 5.Do one of the bridge challenges and write a page on a real-life bridge that would work like the one in the activity. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

38 Review Both skeletal systems and scaffolds are ________. structures © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

39 Review Name some man-made structures. Bridges, buildings, dams, harbors, roads, towers, tunnels, airplanes, boats, and cars. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

40 Review List and explain the two types of loads. Static loads are unchanging or slow changing. Dynamic loads are always moving and changing. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

41 Review Explain the three forces that act on structures. Tension stretches out a structure. Compression squeezes the structure. Shear includes parallel and opposite sliding motions. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

42 Review Name one way to prevent a bridge from bending. Support the center with a pier. Strengthen the beam at the middle. Use trusses. Use cables to distribute the load. Use arches and abutments. Apply the principle of a cantilever. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

43 Review Why are steel rods used to reinforce concrete? Steel rods can resist tension, unlike concrete. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

44 End of Chapter 6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

45 Glossary Abutments –The supports where a bridge arch meets the ground; they resist the outward thrust (push) and keep the bridge up. Arch bridge –A type of bridge in which the compressive stress created by the load is spread over the arch as a whole. Cantilever bridge –A type of bridge in which a beam is capable of supporting a load at one end when the opposite end is anchored or fixed. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

46 Glossary Compression –A squeezing force. Dynamic load –A load on a structure that is always changing. Load –The weight, mass, or force placed on a structure. Pier –A structure used to support the center of a bridge. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

47 Glossary Reinforced concrete –Concrete in which steel rods have been embedded to increase the concretes resistance to tension. Shear –A multidirectional sliding and separating force. Static load –A load that is unchanging or changes slowly. Stays –Cables that support a bridge deck from above. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

48 Glossary Structure –Something that encloses and defines a space; also, an assembly of separate parts that is capable of supporting a load. Strut –A rigid structural member that is in compression. Suspension bridge –A bridge in which the deck is suspended (hung) from hangers attached to a continuous cable, which passes over towers and is anchored to the ground at each end. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

49 Glossary Tension –A pulling force. Tie –A rigid structural member that is in tension. Truss –A structural element made up of a series of triangular frames. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.


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