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Bubble of Protection Complete System Protection ITW Linx A Division of Illinois Tool Works Inc.
©2003 Overview Why Use Surge Protection? Types of Surges Technologies Standards The Bubble of Protection Bonding and Grounding Example
©2003 Why Use Surge Protection? Safety Protect people from electric shock Protect equipment from damage Protect building wiring from excessive electrical current
©2003 Why Use Surge Protection? Safety National Electric Code National Fire Protection Association Telecom equipment under Article 800 Primary Protection at Building Entrance Secondary protection
©2003 Why Use Surge Protection? Safety National Electric Code Savings Blown Equipment Service Calls Downtime Initial Investment with Net Savings
©2003 Why Use Surge Protection? Safety National Electric Code Savings Damaged Equipments Equals….Headaches Lost Equipment Service Repairs System/Business Downtime Dissatisfied Customers Finger Pointing (Installer, Manufacturer, etc.)
©2003 Why Use Surge Protection? Safety National Electric Code Savings Damaged Equipments Equals….Headaches Whos Concerned? Telephone and Power Companies Facility, Operations, and Telecom Managers Architects, Installers, Contractors, Technicians Everyone!
©2003 Types of Surges Lightning Most catastrophic of all surges Does not have to be a direct hit to cause damage A lightning strike within a few miles can be induced into aerial or buried cables 10,000,000 Volts 145,000 Amps (145kA)
©2003 Global Lightning Flashes 2000
©2003 Lightning in the U.S
©2003 Types of Surges Lightning Power Line Cross Excess current on the Communications line High Risk of Fire Injury to personnel Damage to equipment
©2003 Types of Surges Lightning Power Line Crosses Induction Current flow creates a magnetic field Two conductors run parallel and close to one another Field of one conductor can transfer energy to the other conductor Example: Power is first restored following a blackout Current Field
©2003 Types of Surges Lightning Power Line Crosses Induction Electrostatic Discharge Transfer of electrical energy from one material to another Usually found in dry climates Produces high voltage with low current Feel sensation at 4kv Maximum Voltage = 30kV Enough energy to damage integrated circuits (~35V)
©2003 Shock Thresholds 1mAPerception Threshold 3mAMild Shock 8mASevere Shock (involuntary muscle movement) 10mAFreezing Threshold (cant let go) 35mARespiratory Paralysis 65mAHeart Filtration (no blood flow)
©2003 Technologies Voltage Limiting Gas Tube Discharge gap between two metal electrodes Poor control of peak voltage Clamping voltages are too high Discharge times are too slow Deposits build on the discharge plates with each activating surge OK for electromagnetic switches, but not for todays electronics
©2003 Technologies Voltage Limiting Gas Tube Solid State Provides fast, precise, and long lasting protection Premium alternative to gas tube protectors Fast clamping at low voltages Performance can significantly reduce failure rates for both protector units and surge sensitive equipment Improved reliability makes it ideal for critical service lines
©2003 Speed of a Surge How Fast Does Electricity Travel Through A Wire?186,000 Miles/Second Number of Feet in a Mile?5,280 Feet / Mile Speed (in ft/sec) Electricity Travels Through a Wire1,000,000,000 ft/sec Time Required for Surge to Travel One Ft Sec. (1 Nanosecond)
©2003 Speed of a Surge DeviceResponse Time Distance Surge Traveled Past Device Before It Responded Fuse300,000 ns300,000 ft Carbon Block5,000-10,000 ns 5, ,000 ft or 1-2 miles. Gas Tube4,000-5,000 ns 4, ,000 ft Or 1 mile. Solid-State2 - 5 ns2 - 5 ft
©2003 Technologies Voltage Limiting Gas Tube Solid State Current Limiting Sneak Current Protector Fuses Prevents the current that passes by the primary protector undetected from burning down building
©2003 Technologies Voltage Limiting Gas Tube Solid State Current Limiting Sneak Current Protector Fuses PTCs Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) Automatically reset once the over current is removed Service calls/costs are dramatically reduced Cost of replacement fuses eliminated
©2003 Standards National Electric Code (NEC) National Fire Protection Agency for Safety Article Telecommunications All conductive paths entering or leaving a building shall be protected by a listed primary protector as soon as possible, but no more than 50 feet past the building entrance
©2003 Standards National Electric Code (NEC) Underwriters Laboratory (UL) Products listed Do not start on fire or cause a fire to be started, and Do not cause a physical safety hazard to the use
©2003 Standards National Electric Code (NEC) Underwriters Laboratory (UL) UL497 - Primary Designed to protect against Lightning and Power Crosses 100 Amp, 10/ V, 350A Three Exceptions Large metropolitan area Less than 140ft <5 Thunderstorm days per year
©2003 Standards National Electric Code (NEC) Underwriters Laboratory (UL) UL497 – Primary UL497A – Secondary Installed in series between the primary protector and the equipment Must safely limit over currents
©2003 Standards National Electric Code (NEC) Underwriters Laboratory (UL) UL497 – Primary UL497A – Secondary UL497B – Isolated Loop (Fire Alarm or Data Circuit) For lines that are contained within a building and not connected to the public network outside the building These devices protect against transients usually caused by electrostatic discharge and electrical shock NOT INTENDED FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION
©2003 Standards National Electric Code (NEC) Underwriters Laboratory (UL) UL497 - Primary UL497A – Secondary UL497B – Isolated Loop (Fire Alarm or Data Circuit) UL1449 – Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor AC Power listing at 330V For electrical safety, NOT equipment safety
©2003 Risk Assessment Where is the facility (Lightning potential)? What is the Power Quality? Outside Extensions? What is the Ground Quality? How Critical is the System? What Will It Cost to Replace the System?
©2003 Typical Install CO LINES MAIN BUILDING CAMPUS BUILDING Primary Protection Telco Demarcation PBX Secondary Primary Secondary
©2003 Bubble of Protection Backwards Approach Three potential conductive paths 1) AC Power 2) Communications Lines (Telecom) 3) Ground System
©2003 Bubble of Protection C.O. PRIMARYPRIMARY
©2003 Final Layout
©2003 Bonding & Grounding Grounding: Establish 0V Reference Bonding: Maintaining 0V Reference Two Point Resistance < 0.1 Direct attachment to the closest point in the buildings electrical service grounding electrode system is preferred 90% of problems are due to improper grounding Good grounds Structural Steel Electrical Service Panel
©2003 Bonding & Grounding Ground Impedance < 1Ω Tightness of Connections (Check Annually) Length (Short as Possible) Number of Bends (Straight as Possible) Bend Radius (Generous) Size/Gauge
©2003 Bonding & Grounding Ground Impedance (Earth Gnd) < 1.0 ohms Single Point Ground Racks Cable Trays Raised Floor Conduits Structural Steel Equipment Cold Water Pipe AC Panel
©2003 Bonding & Grounding Ground Impedance (Earth Gnd) < 1.0 ohms Single Point Ground Protect or Ground Unused Pairs
©2003 Bonding & Grounding Ground Impedance (Earth Gnd) < 1.0 ohms Single Point Ground Protect or Ground Unused Pairs Use proper gauge wire (AWG) Receptacle ground for small systems TMGB for large systems
©2003 Ground Size Pairs FuselessFused Primary Secondary Not specified by UL or NEC Check Manufacturers Specifications Depends on size of system and current carry capacity
©2003 Example – Airport Installation The damaged phone switch
©2003 Example – Airport Installation A Good Single Point Ground But…
©2003 Example – Airport Installation In Another Room, the Ground Wire… ITS NOT CONNECTED TO ANYTHING!
©2003 Dont let this happen to your system
Questions? Contact ITW Linx
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