2What is fiber optics?Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light signals over long distances.
3Who invented fiber optics? •1840s: Swiss physicist Daniel discovered he could shine light along a water pipe. The water carried the light by internal reflection.•1930s: Heinrich Lamm and Walter Gerlach, tried to use light pipes to make a gastro scope—an instrument for looking inside someone's stomach.•1957: Three American scientists at the University of Michigan, successfully used fiber-optic technology to make the world's first gastro scope.•1960s: Researchers at the Corning Glass Company made the first fiber-optic cable capable of carrying telephone signals.•1997: A huge transatlantic fiber-optic telephone cable called FLAG was laid between London, England and Tokyo, Japan.
4-:Fiber optic parts- Core - Thin glass center of the fiber where the light travels.- Cladding - Outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the core.- Buffer coating - Plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moistureHundreds or thousands of these optical fibers are arranged in bundles in optical cables. The bundles are protected by the cable's outer covering, called a jacket .
5Types of fiber-optic cables :- 1- Single-mode fibersIt has a very thin core about 5-10 microns (millionths of a meter) in diameter. In a single-mode fiber, all signals travel straight down the middle without bouncing off the edges . Cable TV, Internet, and telephone signals are generally carried by single-mode fibers, wrapped together into a huge bundle. Cables like this can send information over 100 km (60 miles).
62- Multi-mode fibers:-Each optical fiber in a multi-mode cable is about 10 times bigger than one in a single-mode cable. This means light beams can travel through the core by following a variety of different paths (purple, green, and blue lines)—in other words, in multiple different modes. Multi-mode cables can send information only over relatively short distances and are used to link computer networks together.
8Fiber optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines:-•Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. This means that they can carry more data.•Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to interference.•Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires.•Data can be transmitted digitally (the natural form for computer data) rather than analogically.
9Optical technology:-Fiber-optic cables carry information between two places using entirely optical (light-based) technology. Suppose you wanted to send information from your computer to a friend's house down the street using fiber optics. You could hook your computer up to a laser, which would convert electrical information from the computer into a series of light pulses. Then you'd fire the laser down the fiber-optic cable. After traveling down the cable, the light beams would emerge at the other end. Your friend would need a photoelectric cell (light-detecting component) to turn the pulses of light back into electrical information his or her computer could understand. So the whole apparatus would be like a really neat, hi-tech version of the kind of telephone you can make out of two baked-bean cans and a length of string!
10A Fiber-Optic Relay System:- -Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters.
11Fiber-optic relay systems consist of the following:- - Transmitter - Produces and encodes the light signals-Optical fiber - Conducts the light signals over a distance- Optical regenerator - May be necessary to boost the light signal (for long distances)- Optical receiver - Receives and decodes the light signals
12How fiber-optics works:- Light travels down a fiber-optic cable by bouncing repeatedly off the walls. Each tiny photon (particle of light) bounces down the pipe like a bobsleigh going down an ice run. Now you might expect a beam of light, traveling in a clear glass pipe, simply to leak out of the edges. But if light hits glass at a really shallow angle (less than 42 degrees), it reflects back in again—as though the glass were really a mirror. This phenomenon is called total internal reflection. It's one of the things that keeps light inside the pipe.
13Applications of fiber optics include:- 1.Telecommunications2.Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs)3.Factory Automation4.Premises Wiring
14-:Practical applications - such as close internal illumination during dentistry.-In the process of developing the gastroscope.-NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras that were sent to the moon.
15-In the military field, where it's hard to spy on and pull the signal -In the military field, where it's hard to spy on and pull the signal. -In genetic engineering, where the genetic code can be dismantled and prevention of genetic diseases such as diabetes, Down syndrome and anemia
17Advantages of Fiber Optics:- - Less expensive - Several miles of optical cable can be made cheaper than equivalent lengths of copper wire. This saves your provider (cable TV, Internet) and you money.- Thinner - Optical fibers can be drawn to smaller diameters than copper wire.- Higher carrying capacity - Because optical fibers are thinner than copper wires, more fibers can be bundled into a given-diameter cable than copper wires. This allows more phone lines to go over the same cable or more channels to come through the cable into your cable TV box.
18- Less signal degradation - The loss of signal in optical fiber is less than in copper wire. - Light signals - Unlike electrical signals in copper wires, light signals from one fiber do not interfere with those of other fibers in the same cable. This means clearer phone conversations or TV reception.- Low power - Because signals in optical fibers degrade less, lower-power transmitters can be used instead of the high-voltage electrical transmitters needed for copper wires. Again, this saves your provider and you money.
19- Digital signals - Optical fibers are ideally suited for carrying digital information, which is especially useful in computer networks.- Non-flammable - Because no electricity is passed through optical fibers, there is no fire hazard.- Lightweight - An optical cable weighs less than a comparable copper wire cable. Fiber-optic cables take up less space in the ground.