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Chapter 3: Planning a Network Upgrade

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1 Chapter 3: Planning a Network Upgrade
CCNA Discovery 2

2 Contents 3.1: Document the Network 3.2: Planning
Site Survey Physical and Logical Topologies Network Requirements 3.2: Planning Physical Environment Cabling Structured Cabling 3.3: Purchasing and Maintaining Selecting LAN devices Selecting Internetworking Devices Upgrades

3 Network Upgrade When expanding an existing network, if a business adds network hardware devices of varying quality and manufacturers, the quality of the current network may become degraded It is important to carefully plan a network upgrade to ensure optimal performance and network scalability Before designing an upgrade, a site survey is created to document the existing network structure. It is also necessary to investigate and document the physical layout of the premises to determine where new equipment can be installed

4 Site survey A site survey provides the network designer important information and creates a proper starting point for the project. It shows what is already on site, and gives a good indication as to what is needed It Should Include: Number of users and types of equipment Internet service and equipment Existing infrastructure Security requirements Application requirements Physical layout

5 Site survey

6 topologies Physical topology Logical topology
Shows the actual physical location of cables, computers, and other peripherals Wired: consists of the wiring closet and the wiring to the individual end-user stations Wireless: consists of the wiring closet and an access point Logical topology Documents the path that data takes through the network and where network functions, like routing, occur. Includes the naming and Layer 3 addressing of end stations, router gateways, and other network devices indicates the location of routing, network address translation, and firewall filtering

7 Physical Topology

8 Logical topology

9 Logical Topology types
Star Each device is connected via a single connection to a central point. The central point is typically a switch or a wireless access point. if a single connecting device fails, only that device is affected. If the central device, such as the switch, fails, then all connecting devices lose connectivity. Extended Star The central device in one star is connected to a central device of another star, such as when multiple switches are interconnected, or daisy-chained together. Mesh Every device has a connection to every other device Fully redundant network, complex to configure Partial Mesh Each device is connected to at least two other devices Creates redundancy but less complex Most core layer networks are wired as Mesh or Partial Mesh to ensure connectivity

10 Logical topologY Types

11 Inventory sheets An inventory sheet is used to help the network designer determine what new equipment is required Helps obtain additional information about the hosts and networking devices that are currently installed should also document any growth that the company anticipates in the near future.

12 Inventory sheet The inventory sheet includes: Device name
Date of purchase Warranty information Location Brand and model Operating system Logical addressing information Gateway Method of connectivity Virus Checker Security information

13 Network upgrade plan A good project plan helps identify any strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, or threats (SWOT) Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities threats The plan clearly defines the tasks, and the order in which the tasks are to be completed.

14 Planning Phases Requirements Gathering
Selection and Design of Cabling and Equipment Devices and cabling are selected based on the requirements outlined in an Analysis Report Multiple design options are created and regularly shared with other members on the project. Prototypes are created and tested Implementation of Network Creating an implementation schedule that allows time for unexpected events, keeps disruption for the customer to a minimum Operation of network The network is brought into service in what is called a production environment Review and Evaluation Compare user experience with goals Compare the projected designs and costs with the actual deployment Monitor the operation and record changes

15 Physical environment Wiring closets: MDF, IDF

16 Planning the Network Upgrade
Cabling considerations: User work areas Telecommunications room Backbone area Distribution area

17 Telecommunications Room

18 Structured cabling Cabling choices: Patch cables: Horizontal cable
STP UTP fiber optic Patch cables: a Short cable from the computer to the wall plate in the user work area Horizontal cable Cable from the wall plate to the IDF in the distribution area Vertical cable Cable from the IDF to the MDF in the backbone area of the business Backbone cable network cable that handles the major traffic

19 Cable wiring Ethernet Cable Types Straight-through cables
Crossover cables Console (rollover) cables Serial cables

20 Cross-over cable

21 Straight-through cable

22 Console cable

23 Floor plan Identify these items: Patch cable Horizontal cable
Vertical cable Backbone cable Location of wiring closet Area to concentrate the end-user cables to the hub or switch Cable management system Trays and straps used to guide and protect cable runs Cable labelling system Labelling system or scheme to identify cables Electrical considerations Outlets and other items to support the electrical requirements of the network equipment

24 Purchasing Equipment Managed service In-house
The equipment is obtained from the ISP through a lease or some other agreement, and the ISP is responsible for updating and maintaining the equipment. In-house The customer purchases the equipment, and the customer is responsible for the updates, warranties, and maintenance of the equipment.

25 Purchase considerations

26 Selecting LAN devices LAN switches provide connectivity within the local area networks.

27 Purchasing and Maintaining Equipment
Routers interconnect local networks and are needed in a WAN environment.

28 Purchasing and Maintaining Equipment
ISRs combine the functions of switches, routers, access points, and firewalls into the same device.

29 Purchasing and Maintaining Equipment
Factors for choosing a router: Type of connectivity Features available Cost

30 Purchasing and Maintaining Equipment
Design considerations: Reliability Availability “5/ 9s of uptime” Fault tolerance

31 Purchasing and Maintaining Equipment
IP addressing plan: IP address scheme Network information

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