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Data and Computer Communications Ninth Edition by William Stallings Chapter 4 –Transmission Media Data and Computer Communications, Ninth Edition by William.

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Presentation on theme: "Data and Computer Communications Ninth Edition by William Stallings Chapter 4 –Transmission Media Data and Computer Communications, Ninth Edition by William."— Presentation transcript:

1 Data and Computer Communications Ninth Edition by William Stallings Chapter 4 –Transmission Media Data and Computer Communications, Ninth Edition by William Stallings, (c) Pearson Education - Prentice Hall, 2011

2 Transmission Media Communication channels in the animal world include touch, sound, sight, and scent. Electric eels even use electric pulses. Ravens also are very expressive. By a combination voice, patterns of feather erection and body posture ravens communicate so clearly that an experienced observer can identify anger, affection, hunger, curiosity, playfulness, fright, boldness, and depression. Mind of the Raven, Bernd Heinrich

3 Overview transmission medium is the physical path between transmitter and receiver transmission medium is the physical path between transmitter and receiver guided media – guided along a solid medium guided media – guided along a solid medium unguided media – atmosphere, space, water unguided media – atmosphere, space, water characteristics and quality determined by medium and signal characteristics and quality determined by medium and signal guided media - medium is more important guided media - medium is more important unguided media - bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important unguided media - bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important key concerns are data rate and distance key concerns are data rate and distance

4 Design Factors Determining Data Rate and Distance higher bandwidth gives higher data rate bandwidth impairments, such as attenuation, limit the distance transmission impairments overlapping frequency bands can distort or wipe out a signal interference more receivers introduces more attenuation number of receivers

5 Electromagnetic Spectrum

6 Transmission Characteristics of Guided Media Frequency Range Typical Attenuation Typical Delay Repeater Spacing Twisted pair (with loading) 0 to 3.5 kHz0.2 1 kHz 50 µs/km2 km Twisted pairs (multi-pair cables) 0 to 1 MHz0.7 1 kHz 5 µs/km2 km Coaxial cable0 to 500 MHz7 10 MHz 4 µs/km1 to 9 km Optical fiber186 to 370 THz 0.2 to 0.5 dB/km 5 µs/km40 km

7 Guided Transmission Media

8 Twisted Pair Twisted pair is the least expensive and most widely used guided transmission medium. c onsists of two insulated copper wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern a wire pair acts as a single communication link p airs are bundled together into a cable m ost commonly used in the telephone network and for communications within buildings

9 Twisted Pair - Transmission Characteristics analog needs amplifiers every 5km to 6km digital can use either analog or digital signals needs a repeater every 2km to 3km limited: distance bandwidth (1MHz) data rate (100MHz) susceptible to interference and noise

10 Unshielded vs. Shielded Twisted Pair Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) ordinary telephone wire cheapest easiest to install suffers from external electromagnetic interference Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) has metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference provides better performance at higher data rates more expensive harder to handle (thick, heavy)

11 Twisted Pair Categories and Classes

12 Near End Crosstalk coupling of signal from one pair of conductors to another coupling of signal from one pair of conductors to another occurs when transmit signal entering the link couples back to the receiving pair - occurs when transmit signal entering the link couples back to the receiving pair - (near transmitted signal is picked up by near receiving pair)

13 Signal Power Relationships

14 Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable can be used over longer distances and support more stations on a shared line than twisted pair. c onsists of a hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner wire conductor i s a versatile transmission medium used in a wide variety of applications u sed for TV distribution, long distance telephone transmission and LANs

15 Coaxial Cable - Transmission Characteristics frequency characteristics superior to twisted pair performance limited by attenuation & noise analog signals amplifiers needed every few kilometers - closer if higher frequency usable spectrum extends up to 500MHz digital signals repeater every 1km - closer for higher data rates

16 Optical Fiber Optical fiber is a thin flexible medium capable of guiding an optical ray. various glasses and plastics can be used to make optical fibers has a cylindrical shape with three sections – core, cladding, jacket widely used in long distance telecommunications performance, price and advantages have made it popular to use

17 Optical Fiber - Benefits greater capacity greater capacity data rates of hundreds of Gbps data rates of hundreds of Gbps smaller size and lighter weight smaller size and lighter weight considerably thinner than coaxial or twisted pair cable considerably thinner than coaxial or twisted pair cable reduces structural support requirements reduces structural support requirements lower attenuation lower attenuation electromagnetic isolation electromagnetic isolation not vulnerable to interference, impulse noise, or crosstalk not vulnerable to interference, impulse noise, or crosstalk high degree of security from eavesdropping high degree of security from eavesdropping greater repeater spacing greater repeater spacing lower cost and fewer sources of error lower cost and fewer sources of error

18 Optical Fiber - Transmission Characteristics uses total internal reflection to transmit light uses total internal reflection to transmit light effectively acts as wave guide for to Hz (this covers portions of infrared & visible spectra) effectively acts as wave guide for to Hz (this covers portions of infrared & visible spectra) light sources used: light sources used: Light Emitting Diode (LED) Light Emitting Diode (LED) cheaper, operates over a greater temperature range, lasts longercheaper, operates over a greater temperature range, lasts longer Injection Laser Diode (ILD) Injection Laser Diode (ILD) more efficient, has greater data ratesmore efficient, has greater data rates has a relationship among wavelength, type of transmission and achievable data rate has a relationship among wavelength, type of transmission and achievable data rate

19 Optical Fiber Transmission Modes

20 Frequency Utilization for Fiber Applications WDM = wavelength division multiplexing

21 Attenuation in Guided Media

22 Wireless Transmission Frequencies 1GHz to 40GHz referred to as microwave frequencies highly directional beams are possible suitable for point to point transmissions also used for satellite 30MHz to 1GHz suitable for omnidirectional applications referred to as the radio range 3 x to 2 x infrared portion of the spectrum useful to local point-to-point and multipoint applications within confined areas

23 Antennas electrical conductors used to radiate or collect electromagnetic energy electrical conductors used to radiate or collect electromagnetic energy same antenna is often used for both purposes same antenna is often used for both purposes transmission antenna reception antenna electromagnetic energy impinging on antenna converted to radio frequency electrical energy fed to receiver radio frequency energy from transmitter converted to electromagnetic energy by antenna radiated into surrounding environment

24 Radiation Pattern power radiated in all directions power radiated in all directions does not perform equally well in all directions does not perform equally well in all directions as seen in a radiation pattern diagram as seen in a radiation pattern diagram an isotropic antenna is a point in space that radiates power an isotropic antenna is a point in space that radiates power in all directions equally in all directions equally with a spherical radiation pattern with a spherical radiation pattern

25 Parabolic Reflective Antenna

26 Antenna Gain measure of the directionality of an antenna measure of the directionality of an antenna power output in particular direction verses that produced by an isotropic antenna power output in particular direction verses that produced by an isotropic antenna measured in decibels (dB) measured in decibels (dB) results in loss in power in another direction results in loss in power in another direction effective area relates to physical size and shape effective area relates to physical size and shape

27 Terrestrial Microwave most common type is a parabolic dish with an antenna focusing a narrow beam onto a receiving antenna located at substantial heights above ground to extend range and transmit over obstacles uses a series of microwave relay towers with point-to-point microwave links to achieve long distance transmission

28 Terrestrial Microwave Applications used for long haul telecommunications, short point-to-point links between buildings and cellular systems used for long haul telecommunications, short point-to-point links between buildings and cellular systems used for both voice and TV transmission used for both voice and TV transmission fewer repeaters but requires line of sight transmission fewer repeaters but requires line of sight transmission 1-40GHz frequencies, with higher frequencies having higher data rates 1-40GHz frequencies, with higher frequencies having higher data rates main source of loss is attenuation caused mostly by distance, rainfall and interference main source of loss is attenuation caused mostly by distance, rainfall and interference

29 Microwave Bandwidth and Data Rates

30 Satellite Microwave a communication satellite is in effect a microwave relay station a communication satellite is in effect a microwave relay station used to link two or more ground stations used to link two or more ground stations receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency frequency bands are called transponder channels frequency bands are called transponder channels requires geo-stationary orbit requires geo-stationary orbit rotation match occurs at a height of 35,863km at the equator rotation match occurs at a height of 35,863km at the equator need to be spaced at least 3° - 4° apart to avoid interfering with each other need to be spaced at least 3° - 4° apart to avoid interfering with each other spacing limits the number of possible satellites spacing limits the number of possible satellites

31 Satellite Point-to-Point Link

32 Satellite Broadcast Link

33 Satellite Microwave Applications uses: uses: private business networks private business networks satellite providers can divide capacity into channels to lease to individual business userssatellite providers can divide capacity into channels to lease to individual business users television distribution programs are transmitted to the satellite then broadcast down to a number of stations which then distributes the programs to individual viewersprograms are transmitted to the satellite then broadcast down to a number of stations which then distributes the programs to individual viewers Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) transmits video signals directly to the home userDirect Broadcast Satellite (DBS) transmits video signals directly to the home user global positioning global positioning Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS)Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS)

34 Transmission Characteristics the optimum frequency range for satellite transmission is 1 to 10 GHz the optimum frequency range for satellite transmission is 1 to 10 GHz lower has significant noise from natural sourceslower has significant noise from natural sources higher is attenuated by atmospheric absorption and precipitationhigher is attenuated by atmospheric absorption and precipitation satellites use a frequency bandwidth range of to GHz from earth to satellite (uplink) and a range of 3.7 to 4.2 GHz from satellite to earth (downlink) satellites use a frequency bandwidth range of to GHz from earth to satellite (uplink) and a range of 3.7 to 4.2 GHz from satellite to earth (downlink) this is referred to as the 4/6-GHz bandthis is referred to as the 4/6-GHz band because of saturation the 12/14-GHz band has been developed (uplink: GHz; downlink: GHbecause of saturation the 12/14-GHz band has been developed (uplink: GHz; downlink: GH

35 Broadcast Radio radio is the term used to encompass frequencies in the range of 3kHz to 300GHz radio is the term used to encompass frequencies in the range of 3kHz to 300GHz broadcast radio (30MHz - 1GHz) covers broadcast radio (30MHz - 1GHz) covers FM radioFM radio UHF and VHF televisionUHF and VHF television data networking applicationsdata networking applications omnidirectional omnidirectional limited to line of sight limited to line of sight suffers from multipath interference suffers from multipath interference reflections from land, water, man-made objects reflections from land, water, man-made objects

36 Infrared achieved using transceivers that modulate noncoherent infrared light achieved using transceivers that modulate noncoherent infrared light transceivers must be within line of sight of each other directly or via reflection transceivers must be within line of sight of each other directly or via reflection does not penetrate walls does not penetrate walls no licenses required no licenses required no frequency allocation issues no frequency allocation issues typical uses: typical uses: TV remote controlTV remote control

37 Frequency Bands

38 Wireless Propagation Ground Wave ground wave propagation follows the contour of the earth and can propagate distances well over the visible horizon this effect is found in frequencies up to 2MHz the best known example of ground wave communication is AM radio

39 Wireless Propagation Sky Wave sky wave propagation is used for amateur radio, CB radio, and international broadcasts such as BBC and Voice of America a signal from an earth based antenna is reflected from the ionized layer of the upper atmosphere back down to earth sky wave signals can travel through a number of hops, bouncing back and for the between the ionosphere and the earths surface

40 Wireless Propagation Line of Sight ground and sky wave propagation modes do not operate above 30 MHz - - communication must be by line of sight

41 Refraction velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of the density of the medium through which it travels velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of the density of the medium through which it travels ~3 x 10 8 m/s in vacuum, less in anything else~3 x 10 8 m/s in vacuum, less in anything else speed changes with movement between media speed changes with movement between media index of refraction (refractive index) is index of refraction (refractive index) is sine(incidence)/sine(refraction) sine(incidence)/sine(refraction) varies with wavelength varies with wavelength gradual bending gradual bending density of atmosphere decreases with height, resulting in bending of radio waves towards earth density of atmosphere decreases with height, resulting in bending of radio waves towards earth

42 Line of Sight Transmission Free space loss loss of signal with distance Atmospheric Absorption from water vapor and oxygen absorption Multipath multiple interfering signals from reflections Refraction bending signal away from receiver

43 Free Space Loss

44 Multipath Interference

45 Summary transmission Media physical path between transmitter and receiver bandwidth, transmission impairments, interference, number of receivers guided Media twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber wireless Transmission microwave frequencies antennas, terrestrial microwave, satellite microwave, broadcast radio wireless Propagation ground wave, sky wave, line of sight


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