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Electrical installation in the field of low voltage with reference to IEC 60364 (VDE 0100) and changes in rated voltage of AC 110V to AC 230V Copyright.

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Presentation on theme: "Electrical installation in the field of low voltage with reference to IEC 60364 (VDE 0100) and changes in rated voltage of AC 110V to AC 230V Copyright."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electrical installation in the field of low voltage with reference to IEC (VDE 0100) and changes in rated voltage of AC 110V to AC 230V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

2 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

3 TN-C Distribution Network TN-C system in which neutral and protective conductor functions are combined in a single conductor throughout the system Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential Exposed conductive part of an appliance L1 L2 L3 N PE For TN-C System see IEC

4 Service connection Connection point House connection box Energy supply company Consumer installation Property line Measuring device 3/PE/N AC 400V 3/PEN AC 400V Distribution board Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

5 Service connection - Legal framework in Germany Application necessary for service connection at energy supply company Technical conditions for connection to the low voltage systems (issued by BDEW) Legal basis for the issuance of the technical conditions is the Energiewirtschaftsgesetz (EnWG) and the Niederspannungsanschlussverordnung (NAV) Dimensioning of the cables according to the requirements of the energy supply company. BDEW: Federal association of Energy and Water Industry EnWG: Law on electricity and gas supply NAV: Regulation on the connection to the low voltage network Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

6 Service connection - Cables Dimensioning of cables according to the specifications of the energy supply company depending on the requirements of the erector (e.g. power requirement of the building) Example: Copper cables to the house connection box of a single-family house designed as three-phase a.c. network with cross-sectional area of at least 10 mm 2 each (3/PEN/AC), e.g. cables of type NYY International Standard: HD 516 Guide to use low voltage harmonized cables The requirements of the various cables are defined in the relevant product standards for cables Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

7 Service connection - Cables HD 603 S1 Power cables - Part 603: Distribution cables of rated voltage 0,6/1 kV Requirements for cables of rated voltage Uo/U = 0,6/1 kV used in underground power distribution systems, mainly for public distribution, of nominal voltage not exceeding 0,6/1 kV a.c. Example: Rated current-carrying capacity, cables in earth -> HD 603 Section 3-G, Table 14 Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

8 Hausanschluss (2) ….. Source: HD 603 S1 Part 3 Section G

9 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

10 House connection box VDE : (national standard only) Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Part 505: Specification for house connection boxes and fuseboxes Source: hager Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

11 House connection box - Transition to TN-S system The splitting of the PEN conductor into the protective conductor and neutral conductor is usually realized in the service box (i.e. transition from TN-C system to TN-S system) IEC ed. 2: Low-voltage electrical installations -Part 4-44: Protection for safety - Protection against voltage disturbances and electromagnetic disturbances In existing buildings supplied from public low-voltage networks and which contain, or are likely to contain, significant amounts of information technology equipment, a TN-S system should be installed downstream of the origin of the installation. In newly constructed buildings, TN-S systems shall be installed downstream of the origin of the installation. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

12 Distribution board House connection box Main earthing terminal Energy supply company Foundation earth electrode Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential House connection box - Transition to TN-S system Source: S. Rudnik, EMV-Fibel für Elektroniker, Elektroinstallateure und Raumplaner VDE-Schriftenreihe 55 L1 L2 L3 PEN L1 L2 L3 N PE N PE

13 NH fuse system IEC : Low Voltage Fuses – Part 1 General requirements IEC : Low Voltage Fuses – Part 2 Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by authorized persons In the house connection box usually 3 NH fuses are installed Provides protection against thermal and dynamical overload of cables and cords Source: hager Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

14 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

15 TN-C System L1 L2 PEN L3 Fuses exposed-conductive-part Term: Exposed-conductive-part (according to IEC ) Conductive part of equipment which can be touched and which is not normally live, but which can become live when basic insulation fails Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

16 Protective function in TN-C System L1 L2 PEN L3 Fuses RBRB exposed-conductive-part Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

17 TN-S System L1 L2 PE L3 N RCD FUSESIN=OUT RBRB RARA exposed-conductive-part RCD: Residual current device Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

18 Protective function of TN-S System L1 L2 PE L3 N RCD FUSESIN>OUT RBRB RARA exposed-conductive-part I diff 30 mA Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

19 Protection against electric shock - Fundamental principles IEC Protection against electric shock - Common aspects for installation and equipment This standard is intended to give fundamental principles and requirements which are common to electrical installations, systems and equipment for their co-ordination The requirements of this standard apply only if they are incorporated, or are referred to, in the relevant standard. It is not intended to be used as a stand-alone standard. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

20 Protection against electric shock - Low voltage electrical installation IEC : Low voltage electrical installation – protection for safety – Protection against electric shock Part 4-41 of IEC deals with protection against electric shock as applied to electrical installations. It specifies essential requirements regarding protection against electric shock, including basic protection (protection against direct contact) and fault protection (protection against indirect contact) of persons and livestock. Basis for this standard is IEC Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

21 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

22 Protective equipotential bonding In each building a so-called protective equipotential bonding has to be realized via the main earthing terminal. (see IEC , ) The equipotential bonding eliminates electric potential differences e.g. between exposed-conductive parts, metallic pipes (gas, water) and conductive parts of the building VDE : (national standard only) Equipotential busbar for main equipotential bonding Source: Kopp Germany Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

23 Source: Kiefer, VDE0100 in der Praxis, VDE Verlag Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential Protective equipotential bonding W

24 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

25 Distribution board Source: hager SH Switches Panel for protection and switching installations Multimedia panel for communication (internal and external) Electrical meters, e.g. for Primary supply by energy provider Renewable energy systems Heating pump E-Mobility Example: Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

26 Distribution board VDE (only national standard) Customer distribution board and meter panels IEC Low Voltage Switchgear and Control gear assembly – Part 1: General requirements IEC Low Voltage Switchgear and Control gear assembly – Part 3: Distribution boards intended to be operated by ordinary persons IEC Empty enclosures for Low Voltage Switchgears and control gear assemblies Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

27 Static (electronic) meter Approval required according to Measuring Instruments Directive 2004/22/EC (MID) A Notified Body has to be involved for the conformity assessment procedure EN Electricity metering equipment (a.c.) – Part 1: General requirements, tests and test conditions -Metering equipment (class indexes A, B and C); EN Electricity metering equipment (a.c.) – Part 3: Particular requirements - Static meters for active energy (class indexes A, B and C); IEC Electricity metering equipment (AC) – General requirements, test and test conditions - Part 31: Product safety requirements

28 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

29 Distribution system Assure selectivity by coordination of residual current protective devices connected in series (VDE , *) Apt. 1 Apt. 2 Apt. 3 5 x 10 mm 2 NYM Distribution board Source: Hager Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential * ) VDE (only national standard): Erection of low-voltage installations - Part 530: Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Switchgear and controlgear

30 Distribution system – Residual Current Protective Device (RCD) Additional protection against electric shock by use of RCDs IEC Low voltage electrical installations Part 4-41: Protection for safety – Protection against electric shock IEC , clause Additional protection In a.c. systems, additional protection by means of a RCD in accordance with shall be provided for: -socket-outlets with a rated current not exceeding 20 A that are for use by ordinary persons and are intended for general use and -Mobile equipment with a current rating not exceeding 32 A for use outdoors. The Use of RCDs is compulsory for all circuits in rooms containing bath or shower (see IEC *) Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential *) IEC Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 7-701: Requirements for special installations or locations - Locations containing a bath or shower

31 Distribution system – Residual Current Protective Device (RCD) IEC , clause Additional protection: Residual current protective devices (RCDs) The use of RCDs with a rated residual operating current not exceeding 30 mA, is recognized in a.c. systems as additional protection in the event of falure of the provision for basic protection and/or the provision for fault protection or carelessness by users The use of such devices is not recognized as a sole means of protection and does not obviate the need to apply one of the protective measures specified in Clause 411 ff. IEC/TR – General requirements for residual current operated protective devices Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

32 Circuit-breakers Circuit-breakers provide protection of cables against overload and short- circuit IEC : Electrical accessories – Circuit-breakers for overcurrent protection for household and similar installations – Part 1: Circuit- breakers for a.c. operation Source: ABB Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

33 Distribution Systems – Cables Dimensioning of cables according to the specifications depending on the requirements of the erector (e.g. power requirement of the building) Example: Copper cables from the meter to the rooms of a single-family house (or apartments of an apartment building) designed as three-phase a.c. network with cross-sectional area of at least 10 mm 2 each (3/PE/N/AC), e.g. cables of type NYM International Standard: HD 516 Guide to use of low voltage harmonized cables The requirements of the various cables are defined in the relevant product standards for cables Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

34 Distribution Systems – Cables VDE (only national standard) Application of cables and cords in power installations – Part 3: Guide to use of non-harmonized cables VDE (only national standard) Cables, wires and cords for power installation – PVC-Installation cable NYM VDE (only national standard) Application of cables and cords in power installations – Part 4: Recommended current-carrying capacity for sheathed and nonsheathed cables for fixed wirings in and around buildings and for flexible cables and cords Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

35 Distribution Systems – Cables IEC : Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V – Part 4: Sheathed cables for fixed wiring IEC Low-voltage electrical installations – Part 5-52: Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Wiring systems e.g. this standard specifies the minimum cross-sectional area of conductors (Section 524.1, Table 52.2) Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

36 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; Plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

37 Switches for fixed installation IEC Switches for household and similar fixed-electrical installations Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Particular requirements – Electronic switches Example: actuating switch (dimmer) Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential Source: Gira

38 Fixed socket-outlets IEC Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes – Part 1: General requirements IEC applies to plugs and fixed or portable socket-outlets for a.c. only, with or without earthing contact, with a rated voltage greater than 50 V but not exceeding 440 V and a rated current not exceeding 32 A, intended for household and similar purposes, either indoors or outdoors. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

39 Plugs IEC Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes – Part 1: General requirements IEC applies to plugs and fixed or portable socket-outlets for a.c. only, with or without earthing contact, with a rated voltage greater than 50 V but not exceeding 440 V and a rated current not exceeding 32 A, intended for household and similar purposes, either indoors or outdoors. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

40 Plugs – Examples IEC/TR 60083: Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC Rated values: 250 V, 16 A With earthing contact Rated values: 250 V, 2,5 A Without earthing contact Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

41 European two-pole plug European standard EN German standard VDE Flat, two pole plug without earthing contacts 2,5 A, 250 V a.c. only non rewirable for the connection of class-II equipment Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

42 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

43 Appliances The safety requirements for equipment/appliances are described in the relevant product safety standard Examples for product standards: IEC – Household and similar electrical appliances IEC – Audio, video and similar electronic apparatus – Safety requirements IEC – Information technology equipment – Safety IEC – Medical electrical equipment Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

44 Household Electrical Appliances IEC , Introduction This standard recognizes the internationally accepted level of protection against hazards such as electrical, mechanical, thermal, fire and radiation of appliances when operated as in normal use taking into accoutn the manufacturers instructions. It also covers abnormal situations that can be expected in practice and takes into account the way in which electromagnetic phenomena can affect the safe operation of appliances. This standard takes into account the requirements of IEC as far as possible so that there is compatibility with the wiring rules when the appliance is connected to the supply mains. However, national wiring rules may differ. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

45 Insulation coordination The insulation coordination implies the selection of the electric insulation characteristics of the equipment with regard to its application and in relation to its surroundings. Protection against direct contact (protection under normal conditions) Direct contact: electric contact of persons or animals with live parts Protection against indirect contact (protection under fault conditions) Indirect contact: Electric contact of persons or animals with exposed-conductive parts which become live under fault conditions Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

46 Insulation coordination IEC Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems; Part 1 – Principles, requirements and tests IEC has the status of a basic safety standard. It specifies the basic requirements regarding clearances, creepage distances and solid insulation. The specification of the requirements is done in the relevant safety standard of the product, e.g. IEC ! In the case of missing specified values for clearance, creepage distances and requirements for solid insulation in the relevant product standards this standard is applicable. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

47 Types of insulation Basic insulation Insulation of hazardous-live-parts which provides basic protection Supplementary insulation Independent insulation applied in addition to basic insulation for fault protection Double insulation Insulation comprising both basic insulation and supplementary insulation Reinforced insulation Insulation of hazardous-live-parts which provides a degree of protection against electrical shock equivalent to double insulation Source: IEC Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

48 Appliances related to protection classes Protection class I Protection class II Basic insulation Protective conductor and Basic insulation Supplementary insulation and Reinforced insulation or Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

49 Appliances related to protection classes Protection classSymbolComment 0Not allowed IProtective conductor IIProtective insulation IIIExtra-low voltage (ELV) III Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

50 Overvoltage categories Source: IEC Cat.DescriptionExample IVEquipment for the use at the origin of the installation Electricity meters and primary protection equipment IIIEquipment in fixed installations and equipment with special requirements regarding reliability and availability Installation equipment after the meter, e.g. LS-Switches IIEnergy consuming equipment to be supplied from the fixed installation Household appliances Portable tools Overvoltage category I: Equipment for connection to circuits in which measures are taken to limit transient overvoltages to an appropriately low level. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

51 Clearance and Creepage distance Requirements for equipment regarding their minimum insulation are set in order to avoid risks. In particular, the equipment must be designed in a way that the requirements regarding the minimum distances between conductive parts are met. Clearance: Shortest distance in air between two conductive parts Creepage distance Shortest distance along the surface of the insulating material between two conductive parts IEC specifies the basic requirements regarding clearances and creepage distances. The specification of the requirements is done in the relevant safety standard of the product, e.g. IEC Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

52 Pollution degree Depending on the field of application, equipment is exposed to different environmental influences as, for example, humidity and dust. IEC defines four degrees of pollution in the micro-environment, i.e. the immediate environment of the insulation which particularly influences the dimensioning of the creepage distances: From pollution degree 1 (the pollution has no influence) to pollution degree 4 (continuous conductivity occurs due to conductive dust, rain or other wet conditions) The requirements of clearance and creepage distances depend on the pollution degrees. Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

53 Material groups Requirements for creepage distances do not only depend on the pollution degree but also on the properties of the insulating material With regard to tracking, insulating materials are categorized according to the so-called Comparative Tracking Index (CTI). IEC defines four groups of insulating materials depending on the CTI. The determination of the CTI is done in accordance with IEC – Method for the determination of the proof and the comparative tracking indices of solid insulating materials Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

54 Overview 1.Distribution network; Service connection 2.House connection box 3.System types; TN-C / TN-S 4.Protective equipotential bonding 5.Distribution Board; Meter 6.Distribution system; Components 7.Socket-outlets; plugs 8.Equipment/Appliances 9.Possible impact caused on changing the mains voltage from 120 V to 230 V Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

55 Possible impact when changing from 120 V to 230 V New 230 V installations need smaller wire diameters at same power consumption or higher power consumption of appliances is possible with same wire diameter as in 120 V installations Implementing a TN-S installation with RCD devices increase the safety of the user Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

56 Possible impact when changing from 120 V to 230 V Existing installations might not be sufficient in regard to insulation demands of the wires used For the 230 V installation other fixed-socket outlets shall be used compared to the 120 V installation to prevent damage on equipment only accepting 120 V supply Equipment shall be designed for the 230 V installation Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

57 Potential Hazards with current installation in Saudi Arabia Found installation situation in Saudi Arabia Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

58 Potential Hazards with current installation in Saudi Arabia Found installation situation in Saudi Arabia Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

59 Potential Hazards with current installation in Saudi Arabia Found installation situation in Saudi Arabia Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential

60 Thank you very much! Use our competence for your success Copyright © VDE-Institut All rights reserved – confidential


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