2ReviewA computer network is a number of computers linked together to allow them to share resources. Networked computers can share hardware, software, and data.Most computer networks have at least one server. A server is a powerful computer that provides one or more services to a network at its users. For example, file storage and .
3LANs & WANs There are two main types of Network: Local Area Network (LAN)Wide Area Network (WAN)
4LANA LAN covers a small area such as one site or building, e.g. a school or college.
5WAN A WAN covers a large geographical area. Most WANs are made from several LANs connected together.
6WAN The Internet is a WAN. A network of ATM (bancomat) dispensers is a WAN.A school network is usually a LAN.LANs are often connected to WANs, for example a school network could be connected to the Internet.WANs can be connected together using the Internet, leased lines or satellite links.
7DNSDomain Name Server???An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses.Domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember.The Internet however, is really based on IP addresses.Every time you use a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address.For example, the domain name might translate to
8Advantages & Disadvantages of Networks Sharing devices such as printers saves money.Site (Software) licenses are likely to be cheaper than buying several standalone licenses.Files can easily be shared between users.Network users can communicate by and instant messenger.Security is good – users cannot see other users’ files unlike on stand-alone machines.Data is easy to backup as all the data is stored on the file server.
9DisadvantagesPurchasing the network cabling and file servers can be expensive.Managing a large network is complicated, requires training and a network manager usually needs to be employed.If the file server breaks down, the files on the server become inaccessible. might still work if it is on a separate server. The computers can still be used but would be isolated.Viruses can spread to other computers throughout a computer network.There is a danger of hacking, particularly with wide area networks. Security procedures are needed to prevent such abuse, e.g. a firewall.
10Sample Question on Networks A school with 20 stand-alone PC’s is considering networking them together and adding a file server.Consider FOUR possible benefits of doing this.
11The Bus NetworkIn a bus network all the workstations, servers and printers are joined to one cable (the bus). At each end of the cable a terminator is fitted to stop signals reflecting back down the bus.
12Bus Network Advantages Disadvantages Easy to Install If Main Cable fails/damaged, network will failCheap to install, as it doesn't require much cableAs more workstations are connected, performance - slowerEvery workstation sees “sees” all data
14The Ring NetworkIn a ring network each device (workstation, server, printer) is connected to two other devices, this forms a ring for the signals to travel around. Each packet of data on the network travels in one direction and each device receives each packet in turn until the destination device receives it.
15Advantages & Disadvantages This type of network can transfer data quickly, even if there are a large number of devices connected because the data only flows in one direction, so there won’t be any data collisions.If the main cable fails or any device is faulty then the whole network will fail.
17The Star NetworkIn a star network each device on the network has its own cable that connects to a switch or hub. A hub sends every packet of data to every device, whereas a switch only sends a packet of data to the destination device.
18Advantages & Disadvantages Very reliable – If one cable or device fails then all the others will continue to workExpensive to install as this type of network uses the most cable (network cable is expensive)High performing as no data collisions can occurExtra hardware required (hubs or switches) which adds to costIf a hub or switch fails all the devices connected to it will have no network connection